Table of Contents
Anatomy Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 7696010, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7696010
Research Article

New Possible Surgical Approaches for the Submammary Adipofascial Flap Based on Its Arterial Supply

1Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
2Surgery, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

Received 1 April 2016; Revised 3 August 2016; Accepted 29 August 2016

Academic Editor: Udo Schumacher

Copyright © 2016 Ehab M. Elzawawy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. Jahkola, S. Asko-Seljavaara, and K. Van Smitten, “Immediate breast reconstruction,” Scandinavian Journal of Surgery, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 249–256, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. K. Dutra, M. S. Neto, É. B. Garcia et al., “The role of transverse latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap immediate breast reconstruction,” European Journal of Plastic Surgery, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 293–299, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. Healy and R. J. Sr. Allen, “The evolution of perforator flap breast reconstruction: twenty years after the first DIEP flap,” Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 121–125, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. G. M. Freedman, P. R. Anderson, L. J. Goldstein et al., “Routine mammography is associated with earlier stage disease and greater eligibility for breast conservation in breast carcinoma patients age 40 years and older,” Cancer, vol. 98, no. 5, pp. 918–925, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Y. Kijima, H. Yoshinaka, Y. Funasako et al., “Immediate reconstruction using thoracodorsal adipofascial flap after partial mastectomy,” Breast, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 126–129, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. B. Clough, G. J. Kaufman, C. Nos, I. Buccimazza, and I. M. Sarfati, “Improving breast cancer surgery: a classification and quadrant per quadrant atlas for oncoplastic surgery,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1375–1391, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Y. Kijima, C. Koriyama, T. Fujii, K. Hirokaga, K. Ishigure, and T. Kaneko, “Immediate breast volume replacement using a free dermal fat graft after breast cancer surgery: multi-institutional joint research of short-term outcomes in 262 Japanese patients,” Gland Surgery, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 179–194, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  8. I. Jatoi and M. A. Proschan, “Randomized trials of breast-conserving therapy versus mastectomy for primary breast cancer: a pooled analysis of updated results,” American Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 289–294, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Ogawa, N. Hanamura, M. Yamashita, Y. Ri, N. Kuriyama, and S. Isaji, “Usefulness of breast-volume replacement using an inframammary adipofascial flap after breast-conservation therapy,” The American Journal of Surgery, vol. 193, no. 4, pp. 514–518, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Agarwal, L. Pappas, L. Neumayer, K. Kokeny, and J. Agarwal, “Effect of breast conservation therapy vs mastectomy on disease-specific survival for early-stage breast cancer,” JAMA Surgery, vol. 149, no. 3, pp. 267–274, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Y. Kijima, H. Yoshinaka, M. Hirata et al., “Oncoplastic surgery for Japanese patients with breast cancer of the lower pole,” Surgery Today, vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 1461–1465, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. G. Peeters, B. Cambier, T. Stasch, and S. Grandel, “The exposed breast prosthesis at the infra-mammary region: treatment by local flaps,” European Journal of Plastic Surgery, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 513–516, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L. A. Kirkpatrick and B. C. Feeney, A Simple Guide to IBM SPSS Statistics for Version 20.0, Cengage Learning, Belmont, Calif, USA, 2013.
  14. R. M. Pearl and D. Johnson, “The vascular supply to the skin: an anatomical and physiological reappraisal,” Annals of Plastic Surgery, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 196–205, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. F. Lorenzi and L. Vaienti, “Subcutaneous tissue flaps: theoretical principles and clinical applications,” European Journal of Plastic Surgery, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 267–271, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Fujishiro, M. Mitsumori, M. Kokubo et al., “Cosmetic results and complications after breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer,” Breast Cancer, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 57–63, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Aljarrah, C. Nos, R. Nasr, K. B. Clough, A.-S. Bats, and F. Lecuru, “Updated follow-up of patients treated with the oncoplastic ‘Crescent’ technique for breast cancer,” The Breast, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 475–479, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. Otsuka, N. Watanabe, Y. Sasaki, and R. Shimojima, “Postoperative courses of breast reconstruction using inferior adipofascial tissue repair,” Breast Cancer, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 570–577, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. Masetti, P. G. Pirulli, S. Magno, G. Franceschini, F. Chiesa, and A. Antinori, “Oncoplastic techniques in the conservative surgical treatment of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 276–280, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. Laporta, B. Longo, M. Pagnoni, F. Catta, G. M. Garbarino, and F. Santanelli, “Accidental injury of the latissimus dorsi flap pedicle during axillae dissection: types and reconstruction algorithm,” Microsurgery, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 5–9, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. L. Moran, G. Nava, A. B. Benham, and J. M. Serletti, “An outcome analysis comparing the thoracodorsal and internal mammary vessels as recipient sites for microvascular breast reconstruction: a prospective study of 100 patients,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 111, no. 6, pp. 1876–1882, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. F. Pratt, J. G. Faris, M. Lethbridge, and L. G. Teh, “Breast reconstruction with a free DIEP (TRAM) flap complicated by cardiac tamponade and arrest: a case report,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. e73–e75, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Al-Benna, L. Steinstraesser, and N. Patani, “Free flap breast reconstruction consent forms should warn against the potential loss of the internal thoracic artery for coronary artery bypass grafting,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 129, no. 5, pp. 867–868, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. M. Munhoz, “Internal mammary perforator recipient vessels for breast reconstruction using free TRAM, DIEP, and SIEA flaps,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 122, no. 1, pp. 315–316, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. F. S. Pompeo, B. Longo, R. Laporta, M. Pagnoni, and E. Cavalieri, “The use of the serratus anterior muscle vascular pedicle as recipient site in DIEP flap transfer for breast reconstruction,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 456–460, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. O. Tan, I. Yuce, O. E. Aydin, and M. Kantarci, “A radioanatomic study of the internal mammary artery and its perforators using multidetector computed tomography angiography,” Microsurgery, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 277–282, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Schmidt, O. C. Aszmann, H. Beck, and M. Frey, “The anatomic basis of the internal mammary artery perforator flap: a cadaver study,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 191–196, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Hamdi, K. Van Landuyt, B. de Frene, N. Roche, P. Blondeel, and S. Monstrey, “The versatility of the inter-costal artery perforator (ICAP) flaps,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 644–652, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. F. S. Pompeo, B. Longo, M. Sorotos, M. Pagnoni, and R. Laporta, “The axillary versus internal mammary recipient vessel sites for breast reconstruction with DIEP flaps: a retrospective study of 256 consecutive cases,” Microsurgery, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 34–38, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. T. Kim and S. W. Kim, “Another option of perforator flap in the lateral thoracic area: lateral thoracic perforator flap,” Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 443–450, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L.-C. Yang, X.-C. Wang, M. L. Bentz et al., “Clinical application of the thoracodorsal artery perforator flaps,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 193–200, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. K. Tashiro, S. Yamashita, J. Araki, M. Narushima, T. Iida, and I. Koshima, “Preoperative color doppler ultrasonographic examination in the planning of thoracodorsal artery perforator flap with capillary perforators,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 346–350, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  33. L. Jain, S. M. Kumta, S. K. Purohit, and R. Raut, “Thoracodorsal artery perforator flap: indeed a versatile flap,” Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 153–158, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. Y. Kim, H. Y. Kim, Y. S. Han, and J. H. Park, “Chest wall reconstruction with a lateral thoracic artery perforator propeller flap for a radiation ulcer on the anterior chest,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 134–136, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. J. McCulley, M. V. Schaverien, V. K. M. Tan, and R. D. Macmillan, “Lateral thoracic artery perforator (LTAP) flap in partial breast reconstruction,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 686–691, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Hamdi, K. Van Landuyt, P. Blondeel, J. B. Hijjawi, N. Roche, and S. Monstrey, “Autologous breast augmentation with the lateral intercostal artery perforator flap in massive weight loss patients,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 65–70, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. F. Salim and J. Chana, “Intercostal adipofascial perforator flap for reconstruction of overcorrected gynaecomastia deformity,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 1385–1387, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. L. Levine, N. E. Soueid, and R. J. Allen, “Algorithm for autologous breast reconstruction for partial mastectomy defects,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 762–767, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. Hamdi, A. Spano, K. V. Landuyt, K. D'Herde, P. Blondeel, and S. Monstrey, “The lateral intercostal artery perforators: anatomical study and clinical application in breast surgery,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 389–396, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. T. Kim, S.-W. Ng, S. Naidu, J. D. Kim, and Y. H. Kim, “Lateral thoracic perforator flap: additional perforator flap option from the lateral thoracic region,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 64, no. 12, pp. 1596–1602, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus