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Anesthesiology Research and Practice
Volume 2016, Article ID 7948412, 8 pages
Research Article

A Prospective Cohort Study Evaluating the Ability of Anticipated Pain, Perceived Analgesic Needs, and Psychological Traits to Predict Pain and Analgesic Usage following Cesarean Delivery

1Department of Anesthesia, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94303, USA
2Department of Obstetric Anesthesiology, Ministry Saint Michael’s Hospital, 900 Illinois Avenue, Stevens Point, WI 54481, USA
3Department of Anaesthesia, University College Hospital, London NW1 2BU, UK

Received 8 December 2015; Accepted 14 March 2016

Academic Editor: Yukio Hayashi

Copyright © 2016 Brendan Carvalho et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Introduction. This study aimed to determine if preoperative psychological tests combined with simple pain prediction ratings could predict pain intensity and analgesic usage following cesarean delivery (CD). Methods. 50 healthy women undergoing scheduled CD with spinal anesthesia comprised the prospective study cohort. Preoperative predictors included 4 validated psychological questionnaires (Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), Fear of Pain (FPQ), Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire) and 3 simple ratings: expected postoperative pain (0–10), anticipated analgesic threshold (0–10), and perceived analgesic needs (0–10). Postoperative outcome measures included post-CD pain (combined rest and movement) and opioid used for the 48-hour study period. Results. Bivariate correlations were significant with expected pain and opioid usage (), anticipated analgesic threshold and post-CD pain (), and perceived analgesic needs and post-CD pain (). Multiple linear regression analysis found that expected postoperative pain and anticipated analgesic needs contributed to post-CD pain prediction modeling (, ); expected postoperative pain, ASI, and FPQ were associated with opioid usage (, ). Conclusion. Preoperative psychological tests combined with simple pain prediction ratings accounted for 44% and 42% of pain and analgesic use variance, respectively. Preoperatively determined expected postoperative pain and perceived analgesic needs appear to be useful predictors for post-CD pain and analgesic requirements.