- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
AIDS Research and Treatment
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 402403, 10 pages
Caregivers' Barriers to Disclosing the HIV Diagnosis to Infected Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in a Resource-Limited District in South Africa: A Grounded Theory Study
1Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Limpopo, Medunsa Campus, P.O. Box 215, Medunsa, Pretoria 0204, South Africa
2Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Limpopo, Medunsa Campus, P.O. Box 215, Medunsa, Pretoria 0204, South Africa
Received 7 August 2012; Revised 8 November 2012; Accepted 8 November 2012
Academic Editor: Glenda Gray
Copyright © 2012 Sphiwe Madiba and Kebogile Mokwena. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- UNGASS, “South Africa UNGASS Country Progress Report,” http://data.unaids.org/pub/report/2010/southafrica_2010_country_progress_report_en.pdf, 2010.
- UNAIDS, “Report on the global AIDS epidemic,” Tech. Rep., UNAIDS, Geneva, 2009, http://www.unaids.org/en/dataanalysis/knowyourepidemic/.
- O. Shisana, T. Rehle, L. C. Simbayi, et al., South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence, Behaviour and Communication Survey 2008: A Turning Tide Among Teenagers?HSRC Press, Cape Town, South Africa, 2009, http://www.hsrc.ac.za/Document-3239.phtml.
- A. M. Butler, P. L. Williams, L. C. Howland, D. Storm, N. Hutton, and G. R. Seage, “Impact of disclosure of HIV infection on health-related quality of life among children and adolescents with HIV infection,” Pediatrics, vol. 123, no. 3, pp. 935–943, 2009.
- L. Wiener, C. A. P. Mellins, S. Marhefka, and H. B. Battles, “Disclosure of an HIV diagnosis to children: history, current research, and future directions,” Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 155–166, 2007.
- L. Myer, K. Moodley, F. Hendricks, and M. Cotton, “Healthcare providers' perspectives on discussing HIV status with infected children,” Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 293–295, 2006.
- P. Oberdorfer, T. Puthanakit, O. Louthrenoo, C. Charnsil, V. Sirisanthana, and T. Sirisanthana, “Disclosure of HIV/AIDS diagnosis to HIV-infected children in Thailand,” Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 283–288, 2006.
- J. Rujumba, C. L. Mbasaalaki-Mwaka, and G. Ndeezi, “Challenges faced by health workers in providing counselling services to HIV-positive children in Uganda: a descriptive study,” Journal of the International AIDS Society, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 9, 2010.
- P. J. Bachanas, K. A. Kullgren, K. S. Schwartz et al., “Predictors of psychological adjustment in school-age children infected with HIV,” Journal of Pediatric Psychology, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 343–352, 2001.
- W. Bikaako-Kajura, E. Luyirika, D. W. Purcell et al., “Disclosure of HIV status and adherence to daily drug regimens among HIV-infected children in Uganda,” AIDS and Behavior, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. S85–S93, 2006.
- I. Blasini, C. Chantry, C. Cruz et al., “Disclosure model for pediatric patients living with HIV in Puerto Rico: design, implentation, and evaluation,” Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 181–189, 2004.
- A. Lesch, L. Swartz, A. Kagee et al., “Paediatric HIV/AIDS disclosure: towards a developmental and process-oriented approach,” AIDS Care, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 811–816, 2007.
- C. A. Mellins, E. Brackis-Cott, C. Dolezal, A. Richards, S. W. Nicholas, and E. J. Abrams, “Patterns of HIV status disclosure to perinatally HIV-infected children and subsequent mental health outcomes,” Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 101–114, 2002.
- S. Kallem, L. Renner, M. Ghebremichael, and E. Paintsil, “Prevalence and pattern of disclosure of HIV status in HIV-infected children in Ghana,” AIDS and Behavior, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1121–1127, 2010.
- S. Waugh, “Parental views on disclosure of diagnosis to their HIV-positive children,” AIDS Care, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 169–176, 2003.
- L. S. Wiener, H. B. Battles, and L. V. Wood, “A longitudinal study of adolescents with perinatally or transfusion acquired HIV infection: Sexual knowledge, risk reduction self-efficacy and sexual behavior,” AIDS and Behavior, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 471–478, 2007.
- S. Biadgilign, A. Deribew, A. Amberbir, H. R. Escudero, and K. Deribe, “Factors associated with HIV/AIDS diagnostic disclosure to HIV infected children receiving HAART: A multi-center study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 3, Article ID e17572, 2011.
- L. M. E. Vaz, E. Eng, S. Maman, T. Tshikandu, and F. Behets, “Telling children they have HIV: lessons learned from findings of a qualitative study in sub-saharan Africa,” AIDS Patient Care and STDs, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 247–256, 2010.
- WHO, Guideline on HIV Disclosure Counselling for Children up to 12 Years of Age, 2011.
- K. Moodley, L. Myer, D. Michaels, and M. Cotton, “Paediatric HIV disclosure in South Africa—caregivers' perspectives on discussing HIV with infected children,” South African Medical Journal, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 201–204, 2006.
- J. Cohen, C. Reddington, D. Jacobs et al., “School-related issues among HIV-infected children,” Pediatrics, vol. 100, no. 1, p. E8, 1997.
- I. Funck-Brentano, D. Costagliola, N. Seibel, E. Straub, M. Tardieu, and S. Blanche, “Patterns of disclosure and perceptions of the human immunodeficiency virus in infected elementary school-age children,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 151, no. 10, pp. 978–985, 1997.
- G. J. Domek, “Debunking common barriers to pediatric HIV disclosure,” Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, vol. 56, no. 6, Article ID fmq013, pp. 440–442, 2010.
- J. Rwemisisi, B. Wolff, A. Coutinho, H. Grosskurth, and J. Whitworth, “‘What if they ask how I got it?’ Dilemmas of disclosing parental HIV status and testing children for HIV in Uganda,” Health Policy and Planning, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 36–42, 2008.
- C. A. Mellins, E. Brackis-Cott, C. Dolezal, and E. J. Abrams, “The role of psychosocial and family factors in adherence to antiretroviral treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 1035–1041, 2004.
- D. P. Kennedy, B. O. Cowgill, L. M. Bogart et al., “Parents' disclosure of their HIV infection to their children in the context of the family,” AIDS and behavior, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1095–1105, 2010.
- S. Qiao, X. Li, and B. Stanton, “Disclosure of parental HIV infection to children: a systematic review of global literature,” AIDS and Behavior. In press.
- A. Strauss and J. Corbin, Basics of Qualitative Research. Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, Sage, Newbury Park, Calif, USA, 2nd edition, 1998.
- StataCorp, “Stata Statistical Software,” Release 10. TX: StataCorp LP, 2007.
- S. W. Ledlie, “Diagnosis disclosure by family caregivers to children who have perinatally acquired HIV disease: when the time comes,” Nursing Research, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 141–149, 1999.
- D. DeMatteo, C. Harrison, C. Arneson et al., “Disclosing HIV/AIDS to children: the paths families take to truthtelling,” Psychology, Health and Medicine, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 339–356, 2002.
- C. L. Lee and R. Johann-Liang, “Disclosure of the diagnosis of HIV/AIDS to children born of HIV-infected mothers,” AIDS Patient Care and STDs, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 41–45, 1999.
- C. Thorne, M. L. Newell, F. A. Botet et al., “Older children and adolescents surviving with vertically acquired HIV infection,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 396–401, 2002.
- J. M. Mahloko and S. Madiba, “Disclosing HIV diagnosis to children in Odi district, South Africa: reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure,” African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine, vol. 4, no. 1, 2012.
- R. Salter-Goldie, S. M. King, M. L. Smith et al., “Disclosing HIV diagnosis to infected children: a health care team's approach,” Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 12–16, 2007.
- G. A. Heeren, J. B. Jemmott III, L. Sidloyi, et al., “Disclosure of HIV diagnosis to HIV-infected children in South Africa: focus groups for intervention development,” Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 47–54, 2012.
- W. M. Nehring, F. R. Lashley, and K. Malm, “Disclosing the diagnosis of pediatric HIV infection: mothers' views,” Journal of the Society of Pediatric Nurses, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 5–14, 2000.
- A. C. Gerson, M. Joyner, P. Fosarelli et al., “Disclosure of HIV diagnosis to children: when, where, why, and how,” Journal of Pediatric Health Care, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 161–167, 2001.
- S. L. Instone, “Perceptions of children with HIV infection when not told for so long: implications for diagnosis disclosure,” Journal of Pediatric Health Care, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 235–243, 2000.
- P. Lester, M. Chesney, M. Cooke et al., “Diagnostic disclosure to HIV-infected children: how parents decide when and what to tell,” Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 85–99, 2002.