AIDS Research and Treatment / 2012 / Article / Tab 2

Clinical Study

Barriers to Initiation of Pediatric HIV Treatment in Uganda: A Mixed-Method Study

Table 2

Clinical and demographic characteristics of the “Monitoring of Antiretroviral Therapy in Children” cohort participants.

OverallStudy site value
Kampala
Fort Portal
Mbale

SexMale152 (49.8)43 (47.3)55 (49.1)54 (52.9)0.719

Age, median years (IQR)4.8 (2.2–8.6)4.0 (1.5–8.5)4.2 (1.9–8.5)5.8 (3.0–8.7)0.127

Age groups<2 years old76 (24.8)32 (35.2)29 (25.9)15 (14.6)0.005
2–5 years old84 (27.5)18 (19.8)37 (33.0)29 (28.2)
5–12 years old146 (47.7)41 (45.1)46 (41.1)59 (57.3)

Age at (first) confirmed HIV+ testMedian (IQR)3.7 (1.6–6.8)3.0 (1.3–7.2)3.3 (1.1–6.8)4.5 (2.7–6.8)0.264

WHO clinical stageStages 3 and 4221 (72.2)36 (39.6)92 (82.1)93 (90.3)<0.001

HIV-TB coinfectionPulmonary tuberculosis31 (10.1)18 (19.8)6 (5.4)7 (6.8)0.001

Severe immunodeficiencyaCD4 count-for-age67 (31.0)36 (40.0)9 (21.4)22 (26.2)0.047
CD4 %-for-age102 (51.3)57 (63.3)18 (42.9)27 (40.3)0.008

Viral load, median log10 cps/mL (IQR)c5.0 (4.4–5.5)5.2 (4.7–5.6)5.1 (4.2–5.5)4.7 (4.1–5.3)0.001

Main reason for ART initiationdHIV diagnosis <24 months30 (9.8)20 (22.0)9 (8.0)1 (1.0)<0.001
Immunological status102 (33.3)55 (61.4)25 (22.3)22 (21.4)
WHO clinical stage174 (56.9)16 (17.6)78 (69.6)80 (77.7)

Time between HIV test and ART initiation, median days (IQR)<2 years old43 (19–85)40 (18–66)48 (23–103)43 (26–86)0.299
2–5 years old97 (26–400)117 (34–309)197 (29–546)64 (15–180)0.302
5–12 years old258 (29–802)242 (28–634)296 (35–757)216 (21–848)0.474

PMTCT exposedYes14 (4.6)11 (12.1)3 (2.7)<0.001

Drugs for PMTCTSingle dose NVP9 (2.9)6 (6.6)3 (2.7)0.025
NVP4 (1.3)4 (4.4)0.008
AZT2 (0.7)2 (2.2)0.093
Unknown1 (0.3)1 (1.1)0.306

BreastfeedingYes24 (7.9)10 (11.1)12 (10.7)2 (1.9)0.023

“Is there enough food in the household?”Yes300 (98.0)87 (95.6)110 (98.2)103 (100.0)0.087

Data are presented as n (%) unless otherwise indicated.
aSevere immunodeficiency, defined as CD4 percentage < 25% or CD4 count < 1500 cps/mm3 below 12 months old, CD4 percentage < 20% or CD4 count < 750 cps/mm3 between 12 and 35 months old, and CD4 percentage <15% or CD4 count < 350 cps/mm3 above 35 months old.
bCD4 count based on ; CD4 percentage based on .
cViral load based on .
dMain reason for initiation as indicated by clinician.