AIDS Research and Treatment / 2012 / Article / Tab 4

Clinical Study

Barriers to Initiation of Pediatric HIV Treatment in Uganda: A Mixed-Method Study

Table 4

Risk factors for late disease stage at presentation (WHO stage 3 or 4).

Univariate analysisMultivariate analysis
OR95% CI valueOR95% CI value

SexFemale1
Male0.990.56–1.740.963

Age group5–12 years old11
2–5 years old1.200.60–2.410.6121.900.85–4.220.117
0–2 years old1.450.72–2.920.3032.831.23–6.500.014

Current living situationWith both parents11
With one parent1.390.71–2.730.3402.050.96–4.350.062
With siblings/relatives/other caregiver/in institution2.461.14–5.310.0213.931.65–9.380.002

Primary caregiverMother1
Father0.800.22–2.940.738
Grandparent3.071.06–8.920.039
Other relative/friend0.920.45–1.910.826
Institution3.090.54–17.640.203

Mother’s health statusHealthy1
Sick1.660.49–5.600.416
Deceased1.590.71–3.580.260
Unknown1.100.28–4.240.894

Father’s health statusHealthy1
Sick1.270.43–3.740.660
Deceased1.780.82–3.850.142
Unknown2.170.81–5.810.122

Highest level of education of the caregiverIlliterate1
Literate/primary school0.770.32–1.830.550
Secondary school0.550.21–1.440.223
Postsecondary school0.490.17–1.450.197

Occupation of the caregiverWage-employed11
Self-employed1.820.78–4.260.1662.501.00–6.280.051
None/at home/student3.241.43–7.340.0054.261.75–10.350.001

PMTCT experiencedYes11
No5.071.24–20.790.0245.661.21–26.510.028

Time between HIV+ diagnosis and ART initiation0–31 days1
>30 days0.930.50–1.730.818

Transportation time<1 hour1
1 hour or more0.850.45–1.580.606

Transportation costs1st quartile (UGXa 500–1500)11
2nd quartile (UGX 1500–3000)1.070.51–2.230.8570.960.43–2.140.915
3rd quartile (UGX 3000–4000)0.890.34–2.330.8180.850.30–2.380.756
4th quartile (UGX 4000–15000)2.090.85–5.150.1082.510.92–6.850.072

Waiting time at clinic<2 hours1
2 hours or more0.830.35–1.980.676

Multilevel univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis with random intercepts to examine factors associated with late disease at presentation (WHO stage 3 or 4), accounting for clustering of observations within sites.
aUGX 500 $0.18; UGX: Uganda Shilling.