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AIDS Research and Treatment
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 873171, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/873171
Clinical Study

Oral HIV-Associated Kaposi Sarcoma: A Clinical Study from the Ga-Rankuwa Area, South Africa

1Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, University of Limpopo, Medunsa Campus, Pretoria 0204, South Africa
2Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA

Received 1 December 2011; Revised 31 July 2012; Accepted 31 July 2012

Academic Editor: Giuseppe Ippolito

Copyright © 2012 Razia A. G. Khammissa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is one of the most common neoplasms diagnosed in HIV-seropositive subjects. Oral involvement is frequent and is associated with a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to characterize the features of oral HIV-KS in patients from Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa. Methods. All cases with confirmed oral HIV-KS treated at the oral medicine clinic in Ga-Rankuwa from 2004 to 2010 were included in this retrospective study. Differences between males and females with oral HIV-KS in relation to HIV infection status, to oral KS presentation and to survival rates were statistically analysed. Results. Twenty (54%) of the 37 patients in the study were females and 17 (46%) were males. In 21 patients (57%), the initial presentation of HIV-KS was in the mouth. Other than the fact that females presented with larger (≥10 mm) oral KS lesions ( 𝑃 = 0 . 0 0 0 4 ) , there were no statistically significant gender differences. Significantly more patients presented with multiple oral HIV-KS lesions than with single lesions ( 𝑃 = 0 . 0 0 0 3 ) . Nine patients (24%) developed concomitant facial lymphoedema, and these patients had a significantly lower CD4+ T-cell count (28 cells/mm3) compared to the rest of the group (130 cells/mm3) ( 𝑃 = 0 . 0 1 ) . The average CD4+ T-cell count of the patients who died (64 cells/mm3) was significantly lower ( 𝑃 = 0 . 0 0 0 4 ) , there were no statistically significant gender differences. Significantly more patients presented with multiple oral HIV-KS lesions than with single lesions ( 𝑃 = 0 . 0 1 6 ) at the time of oral-KS presentation than of those who survived (166  cells/mm3). Conclusions: In Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa where HIV-KS is prevalent, oral KS affects similarly males and females. A low CD4+ T-cell count at the time of oral HIV-KS diagnosis and the development of facial lymphoedema during the course of HIV-KS disease portends a poor prognosis.