Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
AIDS Research and Treatment
Volume 2012, Article ID 873171, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/873171
Clinical Study

Oral HIV-Associated Kaposi Sarcoma: A Clinical Study from the Ga-Rankuwa Area, South Africa

1Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, University of Limpopo, Medunsa Campus, Pretoria 0204, South Africa
2Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA

Received 1 December 2011; Revised 31 July 2012; Accepted 31 July 2012

Academic Editor: Giuseppe Ippolito

Copyright © 2012 Razia A. G. Khammissa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. W. Wang, M. W. B. Trotter, D. Lagos et al., “Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus-induced cellular reprogramming contributes to the lymphatic endothelial gene expression in Kaposi sarcoma,” Nature Genetics, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 687–693, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. B. Aguilar and Y.-K. Hong, “The origin of Kaposi sarcoma tumour cells,” in Kaposi Sarcoma: A Model of Oncogenesis, L. Pantanowitz, J. Stebbing, and B. Dezube, Eds., pp. 123–138, Research Signpost, Kerala, India, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  3. L. Feller, J. Lemmer, N. H. Wood, Y. Jadwat, and E. J. Raubenheimer, “HIV-associated oral Kaposi sarcoma and HHV-8: a review,” Journal of the International Academy of Periodontology, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 129–136, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. I. Lager, M. Altini, H. Coleman, and H. Ali, “Oral Kaposi's sarcoma: a clinicopathologic study from South Africa,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics, vol. 96, no. 6, pp. 701–710, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. Pantanowitz, J. Stebbing, and B. Dezube, “Overview of Kaposi sarcoma,” in Kaposi Sarcoma: A Model of Oncogenesis, L. Pantanowitz, J. Stebbing, and B. Dezube, Eds., pp. 1–40, Research Signpost, Kerala, India, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  6. A. S. Fauci and H. C. Lane, “Human immunodeficiency virus disease: AIDS and related disorders,” in Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicine, D. L. Kasper, E. Braunwald, A. S. Fauci, S. L. Hauser, D. L. Longo, and J. L. Jameson, Eds., pp. 1076–1139, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  7. S. E. Krown, M. A. Testa, and J. Huang, “AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: prospective validation of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group staging classification. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Oncology Committee,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 3085–3092, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. M. Nsubuga, R. J. Biggar, S. Combs et al., “Human herpesvirus 8 load and progression of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma lesions,” Cancer Letters, vol. 263, no. 2, pp. 182–188, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. Feller and J. Lemmer, “Insights into pathogenic events of HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma and immune reconstitution syndrome related Kaposi sarcoma,” Infectious Agents and Cancer, vol. 3, article 1, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Bower, M. Nelson, A. M. Young et al., “Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome associated with Kaposi's sarcoma,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 22, pp. 5224–5228, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. L. Pantanowitz and B. Dezube, “Kaposi sarcoma regression and exacerbation,” in Kaposi Sarcoma: A Model of Oncogenesis, L. Pantanowitz, J. Stebbing, and B. Dezube, Eds., vol. 243–253, Research Signpost, Kerala, India, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  12. J. J. Hille, J. Webster-Cyriaque, J. M. Palefski, and N. Raab-Traub, “Mechanisms of expression of HHV8, EBV and HPV in selected HIV-associated oral lesions,” Oral Diseases, vol. 8, supplement 2, pp. 161–168, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. B. Epstein, R. J. Cabay, and M. Glick, “Oral malignancies in HIV disease: changes in disease presentation, increasing understanding of molecular pathogenesis, and current management,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 571–578, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. B. Epstein and C. Scully, “HIV infection: clinical features and treatment of thirty-three homosexual men with Kaposi's sarcoma,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 38–41, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. B. Rohrmus, E. M. Thoma-Greber, J. R. Bogner, and M. Röcken, “Outlook in oral and cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma,” The Lancet, vol. 356, no. 9248, p. 2160, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Mosam, H. Carrara, F. Shaik et al., “Increasing incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in black South Africans in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (1983–2006),” International Journal of STD and AIDS, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 553–556, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Mosam, J. Aboobaker, and F. Shaik, “Kaposi's sarcoma in sub-Saharan Africa: a current perspective,” Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 119–123, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Bhayat, V. Yengopal, M. J. Rudolph, and M. S. Nemutandani, “Predicting HIV in a public dental facility using group I oral lesions,” Journal of the South African Dental Association, vol. 63, no. 10, pp. 538–543, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. Stebbing, T. Powles, and M. Bower, “Kaposi sarcoma and gender,” in Kaposi Sarcoma: A Model of Oncogenesis, L. Pantanowitz, J. Stebbing, and B. Dezube, Eds., pp. 233–242, Research Signpost, Kerala, India, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  20. L. Feller, R. A. Khammissa, N. H. Wood, R. J. Jose, and J. Lemmer, “Facial lymphoedema as an indicator of terminal disease in oral HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma,” Journal of the South African Dental Association, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 14–18, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. A. Reichart, A. Langford-Kuntz, and H. D. Pohle, “Epidemic oro-facial Kaposi's sarcoma (eKS)—report on 124 cases,” European Journal of Cancer B, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 187–189, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. B. I. Malope, R. M. Pfeiffer, G. Mbisa et al., “Transmission of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus between mothers and children in a South African population,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 351–355, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. Whitby, V. A. Marshall, R. K. Bagni et al., “Reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus by natural products from Kaposi's sarcoma endemic regions,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 321–328, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. Valdez, E. Connick, K. Y. Smith et al., “Limited immune restoration after 3 years' suppression of HIV-1 replication in patients with moderately advanced disease,” AIDS, vol. 16, no. 14, pp. 1859–1866, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. Resino, A. Alvaro-Meca, M. I. de José et al., “Low immunologic response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in naive vertically human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children with severe immunodeficiency,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 365–368, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. M. Kitahata, S. J. Gange, A. G. Abraham et al., “Effect of early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy for HIV on survival,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 360, no. 18, pp. 1815–1826, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Portsmouth, “HIV related Kaposi sarcoma and antiretroviral therapy,” in Kaposi Sarcoma: A Model of Oncogenesis, L. Pantanowitz, J. Stebbing, and B. Dezube, Eds., pp. 371–378, Research Signpost, Kerala, India, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  28. C. G. Sutcliffe, J. H. van Dijk, C. Bolton, D. Persaud, and W. J. Moss, “Effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 477–489, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. T. S. Uldrick and D. Whitby, “Update on KSHV epidemiology, Kaposi Sarcoma pathogenesis, and treatment of Kaposi Sarcoma,” Cancer Letters, vol. 305, no. 2, pp. 150–162, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L. Feller, J. N. Masipa, N. H. Wood, E. J. Raubenheimer, and J. Lemmer, “The prognostic significance of facial lymphoedema in HIV-seropositive subjects with Kaposi sarcoma,” AIDS Research and Therapy, vol. 5, article 2, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. F. Pak, A. R. Mwakigonja, P. Kokhaei et al., “Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus load in biopsies of cutaneous and oral Kaposi's sarcoma lesions,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 1877–1882, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. P. K. Ramdial, R. Chetty, B. Singh, R. Singh, and J. Aboobaker, “Lymphedematous HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma,” Journal of Cutaneous Pathology, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 474–481, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. Pantanowitz and W. H. Duke, “Lymphedematous variants of Kaposi’s sarcoma,” Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 118–120, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  34. L. Feller, C. Anagnostopoulos, N. H. Wood, M. Bouckaert, E. J. Raubenheimer, and J. Lemmer, “Human immunodeficiency virus-associated Kaposi sarcoma as an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: a literature review and case report,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 362–368, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. Z. Papagatsia, J. Jones, P. Morgan, and A. R. Tappuni, “Oral Kaposi sarcoma: a case of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 70–75, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. E. Letang, J. M. Almeida, J. M. Miró et al., “Predictors of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome-associated with kaposi sarcoma in mozambique: a prospective study,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 589–597, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. L. Feller and J. Lemmer, “A model of oncogenesis,” in Kaposi Sarcoma: A Model of Oncogenesis, L. Pantanowitz, J. Stebbing, and B. Dezube, Eds., pp. 295–303, Research Signpost, Kerala, India, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  38. V. Subbiah, J. Orem, W. Mwanda, and M. Borok, “Contemporary perspective of Kaposi sarcoma in Africa,” in Kaposi Sarcoma: A Model of Oncogenesis, L. Pantanowitz, J. Stebbing, and B. Dezube, Eds., pp. 255–270, Research Signpost, Kerala, India, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  39. G. Nasti, D. Serraino, A. Ridolfo et al., “AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma is more aggressive in women: a study of 54 patients,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 337–341, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. L. Meditz, M. Borok, S. MaWhinney et al., “Gender differences in AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma in Harare, Zimbabwe,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 306–308, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. L. Feller, R. A. Khammissa, T. S. Gugushe et al., “HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma in African children,” Journal of the South African Dental Association, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 20–22, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. Webster-Cyriaque, “Development of Kaposi's sarcoma in a surgical wound,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 346, no. 16, pp. 1207–1210, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. L. Pantanowitz and B. J. Dezube, “Kaposi's sarcoma and pemphigus,” Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 571–572, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus