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AIDS Research and Treatment
Volume 2013, Article ID 279876, 7 pages
Research Article

Determinants of Tuberculosis Infection among Adult HIV Positives Attending Clinical Care in Western Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study

1Department of Public Health, Colleges of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, P.O. Box 235, Harar, Ethiopia
2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Colleges of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia

Received 17 May 2013; Revised 6 August 2013; Accepted 2 September 2013

Academic Editor: Glenda Gray

Copyright © 2013 Hatoluf Melkamu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


There has been a drastic rise of tuberculosis (TB) infection across the world associated with the pandemic occurrence of HIV/AIDS. There are various determinants factors that increase the chance of TB infection among HIV positives (TB/HIV confection) that varies contextually. This study aimed to assess the determinants of TB/HIV coinfection among adult HIV positives attending clinical care at two public health facilities in Nekemte, western Ethiopia. Unmatched case-control study was conducted from December 26, 2011, to February 29, 2012. Cases were 123 TB infected HIV positives, and controls were 246 non-TB infected HIV positives. Being divorced/widowed , 95% CI (1.70, 7.88), not attending formal education , 95% CI (2.20, 14.15), being underweight (  kg/m2) , 95% CI (2.18, 6.87), having history of diabetic mellitus , 95% CI (1.33, 9.94), and being in advanced WHO HIV/AIDS clinical staging , 95% CI (1.32, 3.98), were determinant factors associated with TB/HIV co-infection. Having a separate kitchen , 95% CI (0.28, 0.81) showed protective role. For most of these determinants interventions can be made at individual and institutional levels, whereas, factors like education and nutrition need societal level integrations.