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AIDS Research and Treatment
Volume 2013, Article ID 485715, 10 pages
Research Article

Integration of HIV Care with Primary Health Care Services: Effect on Patient Satisfaction and Stigma in Rural Kenya

1Family AIDS Care and Education Services, Kisumu, Kenya
2Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
3Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
4Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
5Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
6Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
7Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation, Government of Kenya, Kisumu, Kenya

Received 28 January 2013; Revised 8 April 2013; Accepted 14 April 2013

Academic Editor: D. A. Katzenstein

Copyright © 2013 Thomas A. Odeny et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


HIV departments within Kenyan health facilities are usually better staffed and equipped than departments offering non-HIV services. Integration of HIV services into primary care may address this issue of skewed resource allocation. Between 2008 and 2010, we piloted a system of integrating HIV services into primary care in rural Kenya. Before integration, we conducted a survey among returning adults ≥18-year old attending the HIV clinic. We then integrated HIV and primary care services. Three and twelve months after integration, we administered the same questionnaires to a sample of returning adults attending the integrated clinic. Changes in patient responses were assessed using truncated linear regression and logistic regression. At 12 months after integration, respondents were more likely to be satisfied with reception services (adjusted odds ratio, aOR 2.71, 95% CI 1.32–5.56), HIV education (aOR 3.28, 95% CI 1.92–6.83), and wait time (aOR 1.97 95% CI 1.03–3.76). Men's comfort with receiving care at an integrated clinic did not change (aOR = 0.46 95% CI 0.06–3.86). Women were more likely to express discomfort after integration (aOR 3.37 95% CI 1.33–8.52). Integration of HIV services into primary care services was associated with significant increases in patient satisfaction in certain domains, with no negative effect on satisfaction.