Table 6: Examples of cognitive probes.

Cognitive processCognitive probes

Think aloudHow did you go about answering that question?
Tell me what you are thinking?
I noticed you hesitated before you answered—what were you thinking about?
How easy or difficult did you find this question to answer?
Why do you say that?

ComprehensionWhat does the term X mean to you?
What did you understand by X?

RetrievalHow did you remember that?
Did you have a particular time period in mind?
How did you calculate your answer?

Confidence judgment
How well do you remember this?
How sure of your answer are you?

How did you feel about answering this question?
Were you able to find your first answer to the question from the response options shown?

Source: adapted from [26].