Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
AIDS Research and Treatment
Volume 2014, Article ID 724958, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/724958
Clinical Study

Plasma and Intracellular Antiretroviral Concentrations in HIV-Infected Patients under Short Cycles of Antiretroviral Therapy

1Institut de Chimie de Nice UMR 7272, Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 2, France
2Laboratory of Pharmacology-Toxicology, AP-HP, Hôpital Raymond Poincaré, 104 Boulevard Raymond Poincaré, 92380 Garches, France
3Immunology and Virology Unit, AP-HP, Hôpital Raymond Poincaré, 104 Boulevard Raymond Poincaré, 92380 Garches, France

Received 30 May 2014; Revised 17 October 2014; Accepted 17 October 2014; Published 9 November 2014

Academic Editor: David Katzenstein

Copyright © 2014 Laura Zehnacker et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Leibowitch, D. Mathez, P. De Truchis, C. Perronne, and J.-C. Melchior, “Short cycles of antiretroviral drugs provide intermittent yet effective therapy: a pilot study in 48 patients with chronic HIV infection,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 1649–1655, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Azoulay, M.-C. Nevers, C. Créminon et al., “An enzyme immunoassay for the quantification of plasma and intracellular lopinavir in HIV-infected patients,” Journal of Immunological Methods, vol. 295, no. 1-2, pp. 37–48, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Azoulay, M.-C. Nevers, C. Créminon et al., “Sensitive enzyme immunoassay for measuring plasma and intracellular nevirapine levels in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 104–109, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. C. Roucairol, S. Azoulay, M.-C. Nevers et al., “Development of a competitive immunoassay for efavirenz: hapten design and validation studies,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 589, no. 1, pp. 142–149, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. Roucairol, S. Azoulay, M.-C. Nevers et al., “Quantitative immunoassay to measure plasma and intracellular atazanavir levels: analysis of drug accumulation in cultured T cells,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 405–411, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. Benech, F. Théodoro, A. Herbet et al., “Peripheral blood mononuclear cell counting using a DNA-detection-based method,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 330, no. 1, pp. 172–174, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. W.-Y. Gao, A. Cara, R. C. Gallo, and F. Lori, “Low levels of deoxynucleotides in peripheral blood lymphocytes: a strategy to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 90, no. 19, pp. 8925–8928, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. Bazzoli, V. Jullien, C. Le Tiec, E. Rey, F. Mentré, and A.-M. Taburet, “Intracellular pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs in HIV-infected patients, and their correlation with drug action,” Clinical Pharmacokinetics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 17–45, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. K. M. L. Crommentuyn, J. W. Mulder, A. T. A. Mairuhu et al., “The plasma and intracellular steady-state pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir in HIV-1-infected patients,” Antiviral Therapy, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 779–785, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. Ford, S. H. Khoo, and D. J. Back, “The intracellular pharmacology of antiretroviral protease inhibitors,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 982–990, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Owen and S. H. Khoo, “Intracellular pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral agents,” Journal of HIV therapy, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 97–101, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. Pal and A. K. Mitra, “MDR- and CYP3A4-mediated drug-drug interactions,” Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 323–339, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L. M. Almond, P. G. Hoggard, D. Edirisinghe, S. H. Khoo, and D. J. Back, “Intracellular and plasma pharmacokinetics of efavirenz in HIV-infected individuals,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 738–744, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. L. M. Almond, D. Edirisinghe, M. Dalton, A. Bonington, D. J. Back, and S. H. Khoo, “Intracellular and plasma pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals,” Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 132–142, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. S. Cvetkovic and K. L. Goa, “Lopinavir/ritonavir: a review of its use in the management of HIV infection,” Drugs, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 769–802, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. Le Tiec, A. Barrail, C. Goujard, and A.-M. Taburet, “Clinical pharmacokinetics and summary of efficacy and tolerability of atazanavir,” Clinical Pharmacokinetics, vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 1035–1050, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. F. Smith, R. Dicenzo, and G. D. Morsel, “Clinical pharmacokinetics of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors,” Clinical Pharmacokinetics, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 893–905, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. O. Janneh, B. Chandler, R. Hartkoorn et al., “Intracellular accumulation of efavirenz and nevirapine is independent of P-glycoprotein activity in cultured CD4 T cells and primary human lymphocytes,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 1002–1007, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus