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AIDS Research and Treatment
Volume 2015, Article ID 103874, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/103874
Research Article

Resistance to Cotrimoxazole and Other Antimicrobials among Isolates from HIV/AIDS and Non-HIV/AIDS Patients at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania

1Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Weill Bugando School of Medicine, P.O. Box 1464, Mwanza, Tanzania
2Microbiology and Immunology Department, Weill Bugando School of Medicine, P.O. Box 1464, Mwanza, Tanzania
3Department of Community Medicine, School of Public Health, Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O. Box 1464, Mwanza, Tanzania
4Department of Pharmacology, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 1410, Mbarara, Uganda
5National Institute for Medical Research, P.O. Box 1462, Mwanza, Tanzania

Received 11 September 2014; Revised 20 January 2015; Accepted 31 January 2015

Academic Editor: Otoniel Martinez-Maza

Copyright © 2015 Karol J. Marwa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Bacterial resistance has increased in the AIDS era and is attributed to the widespread use of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis against opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients. In Tanzania, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis has been used for more than ten years. Little is known, however, about its impact on the spread of antibiotic resistance in HIV positive patients. This cross-sectional study was done to compare magnitude of bacterial resistance to cotrimoxazole and other antimicrobials among isolates from HIV infected patients on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and those not on prophylaxis and non-HIV patients attending Bugando Medical Centre (BMC). Susceptibility testing on obtained urine and swab specimens followed Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute, 2010, Guidelines. Of 945 samples collected, 155 had positive bacterial growth after 24 hours of incubation. Of the positive samples (72), 46.4% were from HIV positive patients. The common isolates were E. coli 41.3% (64/155), Klebsiella pneumoniae 17.5% (27/155), and Staphylococcus aureus 16.1% (25/155). Overall, bacterial resistance to cotrimoxazole was 118 (76.1%); among isolates from HIV patients bacterial resistance was 54 (75%), and for isolates from HIV patients on prophylaxis bacterial resistance was 36 (81.3%). HIV seropositivity and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis are not associated with antibiotic resistance observed in bacteria infecting patients attending BMC, Mwanza, Tanzania.