Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
AIDS Research and Treatment
Volume 2017, Article ID 3134790, 6 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3134790
Research Article

Prevalence and Clinical Spectrum of Liver Disease in Nepalese HIV-Sero-Positive Patients Undergoing Antiretroviral Therapy: A Cross-Sectional Hospital Based Study

1Nepal Armed Police Force Hospital, Balambu, Kathmandu, Nepal
2National Academy of Medical Science, Bir Hospital, Mahaboudha, Kathmandu, Nepal
3Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Purbanchal University, Little Buddha College of Health Science, Minbhawan, Kathmandu, Nepal

Correspondence should be addressed to Shiv Kumar Sah; moc.liamg@vihsrhp

Received 12 November 2016; Revised 15 February 2017; Accepted 11 May 2017; Published 11 June 2017

Academic Editor: Patrice K. Nicholas

Copyright © 2017 Roshan Kumar Jha and Shiv Kumar Sah. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. M. Wnuk, “Liver damage in HIV-infected patients,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 729–236, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  2. D. T. Dieterich, P. A. Robinson, J. Love, and J. O. Stern, “Drug-induced liver injury associated with the use of nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. S80–S89, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. N. Bodsworth, B. Donovan, and B. N. Nightingale, “The effect of concurrent human imniunodeficiency virus infection on chronic hepatitis B: a study of 150 homosexual men,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 160, no. 4, pp. 577–582, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. J. C. Gilson, A. E. Hawkins, M. R. Beecham et al., “Interactions between HIV and hepatitis B virus in homosexual men: effects on the natural history of infection,” AIDS, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 597–606, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. E. Kenny-Walsh, “Clinical outcomes after hepatitis C infection from contaminated anti-D immune globulin,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 340, no. 16, pp. 1228–1233, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. J. Alter, H. S. Margolis, K. Krawczynski et al., “The natural history of community-acquired hepatitis C in the United States. The sentinel counties chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis study team,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 327, no. 27, pp. 1899–1905, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. S. Sulkowski, D. L. Thomas, S. H. Mehta, R. E. Chaisson, and R. D. Moore, “Hepatotoxicity associated with nevirapine or efavirenz-containing antiretroviral therapy: role of hepatitis C and B infections,” Hepatology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 182–189, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. H. Kovari, B. Ledergerber, M. Battegay et al., “Incidence and risk factors for chronic elevation of alanine aminotransferase levels in HIV-infected persons without hepatitis B or C virus co-infection,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 502–511, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. F. W. Wit, G. J. Weverling, J. Weel, S. Jurriaans, and J. M. A. Lange, “Incidence of and risk factors for severe hepatotoxicity associated with antiretroviral combination therapy,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 186, no. 1, pp. 23–31, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. Aranzabal, J. L. Casado, J. Moya et al., “Influence of liver fibrosis on highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated hepatotoxicity in patients with HIV and hepatitis C virus coinfection,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 588–593, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Núñez, R. Lana, J. L. Mendoza, L. Martín-Carbonero, and V. Soriano, “Risk factors for severe hepatic injury after introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 426–431, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Den Brinker, F. W. Wit, P. Wertheim-van Dillen et al., “Hepatitis B and C virus co-infection and the risk for hepatotoxicity of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infection,” AIDS, vol. 14, no. 18, pp. 2895–2902, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. S. Sulkowski, D. L. Thomas, R. E. Chaisson, and R. D. Moore, “Hepatotoxicity associated with antiretroviral therapy in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus and the role of hepatitis C or B virus infection,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 283, no. 1, pp. 74–80, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. S. Sulkowski, “Drug-induced liver injury associated with antiretroviral therapy that includes HIV-1 protease inhibitors,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. S90–S97, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. Van Hest, H. Baars, S. Kik et al., “Hepatotoxicity of rifampin-pyrazinamide and isoniazid preventive therapy and tuberculosis treatment,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 488–496, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. Yimer, G. Aderaye, W. Amogne et al., “Anti-tuberculosis therapy-induced hepatotoxicity among Ethiopian HIV-positive and negative patients,” PLoS ONE, vol. 3, no. 3, article e1809, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. Ocama, B. Castelnuovo, M. R. Kamya et al., “Low frequency of liver enzyme elevation in HIV-infected patients attending a large urban treatment centre in Uganda,” International Journal of STD and AIDS, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 553–557, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Country Progress Report on HIV/AIDS Response, Government of Nepal Ministry of Health and Population National Centre for AIDS and STD Control, Nepal, 2014.
  19. P. Ocama, K. C. Opio, M. Kagimu, E. Seremba, H. Wabinga, and R. Colebunders, “Hepatitis B virus and HIV infection among patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma in Kampala, Uganda,” African Health Sciences, vol. 11, pp. S20–S23, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. W. Karuru, G. N. Lule, M. Joshi, and O. Anzala, “Prevalence of HCV and HCV/HIV co-infection among in-patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital,” East African Medical Journal, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 170–172, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. J. Simpore, D. Ilboudo, A. Samandoulougou, P. Guardo, P. Castronovo, and S. Musumeci, “HCV and HIV co-infection in pregnant women attending St. Camille Medical Centre in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso),” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 209–212, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. Klyesubula, K. C. Opio, R. Kiguba, C. F. Semitala, W. F. Achlec, and E. T. Katibra, “Hepatotoxicity from first line antiretroviral therapy: an experiencefrom a resource limited setting,” African Health Sciences, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 16–23, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  23. R. J. Burnett, G. Francois, and M. C. Kew, “Hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection in sub-Saharan Africa: a call for further investigation,” Liver International, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 201–213, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. Powles, D. Macdonald, M. Nelson, and J. Stebbing, “Hepatocellular cancer in HIV-infected individuals: tomorrow's problem?” Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 1553–1558, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. K. A. McGinnis, S. L. Fultz, M. Skanderson, J. Conigliaro, K. Bryant, and A. C. Justice, “Hepatocellular carcinoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: the roles of HIV, hepatitis C infection, and alcohol abuse,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 24, no. 31, pp. 5005–5009, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. Ocama, M. Katwere, T. Piloya et al., “The spectrum of liver diseases in HIV infected individuals at an HIV treatment clinic in Kampala, Uganda,” African Health Sciences, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 8–12, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. González De Requena, M. Núñez, I. Jiménez-Nácher, and V. Soriano, “Liver toxicity caused by nevirapine,” AIDS, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 290-291, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus