Tribological and Mechanical Properties of Gradient Coating on Al2O3-Based Coating Produced by Detonation Spraying MethodsRead the full article
Advances in Tribology publishes papers on the science of friction, wear, and lubrication. Topics covered include investigations into contact mechanics, wear and damage processes, surface and coating engineering, and lubrication technology.
Advances in Tribology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Investigation on the Cutting Force and Surface Quality in Harmonically Vibrated Broaching (HVB)
This paper investigates the broaching process of phosphor-bronze (C54400) under different cutting conditions, and the influential factors on cutting force and surface quality are studied. The simulated cutting force implementing the force model based on the energy components also agrees with the results of experiments. In the first part, different cutting velocities of VC = 5, 10, 15, and 20 m/min are studied. In the second part, harmonic vibrations in the form of a sine wave with precise amplitude (A = 1 m/min) and frequencies (F = 55, 65, 85, and 95 Hz) are added in the direction of the cutting velocity. The results revealed that an increase in the cutting velocity from 5 to 20 m/min results in a 40% enhancement in surface quality and a 20% decrease in the cutting force. Additionally, harmonic vibrations of higher frequencies can also contribute to a 35% higher surface quality and a 20% lower cutting force. This study will ultimately improve productivity in industries where broaching is considered the main manufacturing approach, such as automotive and aerospace, in which precision and accuracy are of paramount importance.
Influence of Spraying Parameters on the Structure and Tribological Properties of Cr3C2-NiCr Detonation Coatings
In this work, the influence of spray parameters on the formation of the microstructure, phase composition, and the tribological properties of detonation flame sprayed coatings was studied. It was determined that the chemical composition of Cr3C2-NiCr coatings during detonation spraying depends on the degree of filling the barrel with an explosive gas mixture. The degree of filling the barrel with an explosive gas mixture at 73% leads to a decrease in the content of carbide phases, and at 57% filling of the barrel, an increase in carbide phases is observed. It is established that the decrease of the filling degree leads to the increase of hardness and wear resistance of the Cr3C2-NiCr coatings since the hardness and wear resistance of the coating material deposited at 57% is higher than at 65% and 73%; this is due to the increase in the carbide phase Cr3C2. Detonation flame sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr gradient coatings have been developed in this study, which is carried out by varying the spray parameters. It was found that in the gradient coating, Cr3C2-NiCr carbide phases gradually increase from the depth to the surface. The obtained gradient coating closer to the substrate consists of the CrNi3 phase, while the coating surface consists of CrNi3 and Cr3C2 phases.
Assessment of the Conventional Acid-Clay Method in Reclaiming Waste Crankcase Lubricating Oil
In this study, the conventional acid-clay method was used to evaluate its potential for recycling waste crankcase lubricating oil (WCLO). The results showed that the acid-clay method was effective in re-refining the WCLO and returning the oil to a quality comparable to oils produced from fresh lube oil stocks. This method has been reported to account for around 90% of the global waste crankcase lubricating oil treatment and is considered to be an inexpensive process. The results revealed that the acid-clay method improved the viscosity of the oil at 40°C from 104 cSt to 105.6 cSt. The flash point of the oil was also increased from 192°C in the WCLO to 204°C in the re-refined crankcase lubricating oil (RCLO). The water content reduced from 0.01% in the WCLO to 0% in the RCLO, indicating the effectiveness of the acid-clay method in removing water traces from the WCLO. Additionally, the contaminants present in the WCLO were reduced drastically, with iron and aluminum content reduced from 23.0% and 21.0% to 0.0% and 0.0%, respectively. The fuel ingress in the WCLO reduced from 4.0% to 1.0%. However, it was observed that the acid-clay method did not significantly impact the viscosity index, TBN, and density of the oil. The re-refined base oil produced by the acid-clay method can be fortified with appropriate additives and reused in vehicles, reducing environmental pollution, depleting fossil resources, and saving the country’s foreign exchange used in importing fresh lubricating oil.
Dynamic Processes of Self-Organization in Nonstationary Conditions of Friction
Self-organization mechanisms of metastable dissipative structures during friction depending on base and oil functional additives for hypoid gears are considered. Research was conducted on a software-hardware complex with simulation of gears’ operation in rolling with slipping conditions in start-stop mode. Indicators of formation of wear-resistant dissipative structures include the following: improvement of antifriction characteristics, lubricant boundary layers’ formation, contact surfaces’ strengthening, and formation of heterogeneous deformation microrelief with a fine-grained structure. The formation of chemically modified boundary layers on 90% of the contact area of tribo-coupling elements ensures an increase in the wear resistance of leading and lagging surfaces by 2 and 1.4 times, respectively. The sclerometry method was used to establish that the formation of dissipative structures when lubricating tribo-coupling elements with various transmission oils can reduce deformation processes in metal near-surface layers by 23%. Highly viscous flavored lubricant with distillate oil and additive composition ensures wear-resistant dissipative structures with active components, including oxygen, sulfur, and phosphorus.
Tribological Behavior of Mild Steel under Canola Biolubricant Conditions
New lubricants based on vegetable oil were developed in this study. Different blends of canola oil mixed with fully synthetic two stock engine oils were developed (0, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of synthetic oil). The viscosity of the prepared blends was determined at different temperatures (20°C–80°C). Tribological experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of the newly developed oil on the wear characteristics of mild steel material compared with stainless steel when subjected to adhesive wear loading. The weight loss (WL) and the specific wear rate (SWR) of the mild steel using each of the prepared lubricants were determined. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the worn surface of the mild steel. The results revealed that pure canola oil as a lubricant performed competitively against a blend of 80% synthetic and 20% canola oils. The viscosity of the canola oil and its various blends with synthetic oil are controlled by the environmental temperature since an increased temperature reduces the viscosity. Also, the experimental results revealed that operating parameters play the main role in controlling the wear behavior of mild steel since increasing the sliding distances increases the weight loss. The specific wear rate exhibited a steady state after about 5 km sliding distance, and different blends influenced the applied loads and velocity differently. The mixing ratio of canola and syntactic oil was not particularly significant since the pure canola oil exhibited competitive wear performance compared with the blends. However, an intermediate mixing ratio (40%–60% synthetic oil mixed with 60%–40% canola) can produce a slightly low specific wear rate among other things.
Tribological Behavior of Ni-Based WC-Co Coatings Deposited via Spray and Fuse Technique Varying the Oxygen Flow
The tribological behavior of Ni-based WC-Co coatings is analyzed. The coatings were deposited on gray cast iron substrates in a spray and fuse process using SuperJet Eutalloy deposition equipment, varying the oxygen flow conditions in the flame. The crystallographic structure of the coatings was characterized via the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The microhardness was measured on the surface and in cross sections of the coatings by means of a Knoop microhardness tester. The topography and the morphological characteristics of the coatings and the tribo-surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy, while the chemical composition was measured by means of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The tribological behavior of the coatings was examined via a cohesion-adhesion scratch test, using cross sections of the coatings. Furthermore, two wear tests were carried out, using the pin-on-disk method under ASTM G99 standard and an ASTM standard G65 sand/rubber wheel abrasion wear test. The wear of the coatings showed a close relationship to the porosity in the metal matrix; since then, in the abrasive wear test, a high porosity is related with lower hardness in the coatings; likewise, a low hardness is related with a high wear.