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Advances in Tribology
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 6545904, 11 pages
Research Article

The Application of Response Surface Methodology in the Investigation of the Tribological Behavior of Palm Cooking Oil Blended in Engine Oil

1Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia
2Automotive Engineering Research Group (AERG), University Malaysia Pahang, Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia

Received 16 July 2015; Revised 20 October 2015; Accepted 29 October 2015

Academic Editor: Shyam Bahadur

Copyright © 2016 M. H. Sakinah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal design parameters and to indicate which of the design parameters are statistically significant for obtaining a low coefficient of friction (COF) and low wear rate with waste palm oil blended with SAE 40. The tribology performance was evaluated using a piston-ring-liner contact tester. The design of experiment (DOE) was constructed by using response surface methodology (RSM) to minimize the number of experimental conditions and to develop a mathematical model between the key process parameters such as rotational speeds (200 rpm to 300 rpm), volume concentration (0% to 10% waste oil), and applied loads (2 kg to 9 kg). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was also carried out to check the adequacy of the empirical models developed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the damage features at the worn surface under lubricant contact conditions.