Advances in Tribology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. The Segmentation of Wear Particles Images Using -Segmentation Algorithm Mon, 18 Apr 2016 16:31:25 +0000 This study aims to use a JSEG algorithm to segment the wear particle’s image. Wear particles provide detailed information about the wear processes taking place between mechanical components. Autosegmentation of their images is key to intelligent classification system. This study examined whether this algorithm can be used in particles’ image segmentation. Different scales have been tested. Compared with traditional thresholding along with edge detector, the JSEG algorithm showed promising result. It offers a relatively higher accuracy and can be used on color image instead of gray image with little computing complexity. A conclusion can be drawn that the JSEG method is suited for imaged wear particle segmentation and can be put into practical use in wear particle’s identification system. Hong Liu, Haijun Wei, Lidui Wei, Jingming Li, and Zhiyuan Yang Copyright © 2016 Hong Liu et al. All rights reserved. The Friction of Saline Ice on Aluminium Mon, 18 Apr 2016 09:17:44 +0000 The friction of ice on other materials controls loading on offshore structures and vessels in the Arctic. However, ice friction is complicated, because ice in nature exists near to its melting point. Frictional heating can cause local softening and perhaps melting and lubrication, thus affecting the friction and creating a feedback loop. Ice friction is therefore likely to depend on sliding speed and sliding history, as well as bulk temperature. The roughness of the sliding materials may also affect the friction. Here we present results of a series of laboratory experiments, sliding saline ice on aluminium, and controlling for roughness and temperature. We find that the friction of saline ice on aluminium typically, but that this value varies with sliding conditions. We propose physical models which explain the variations in sliding friction. Christopher Wallen-Russell and Ben Lishman Copyright © 2016 Christopher Wallen-Russell and Ben Lishman. All rights reserved. A Rational Theory of Tire-Pavement Friction Wed, 06 Apr 2016 08:03:56 +0000 The present study involves field testing of a tire-loading-based theory of pavement traction in place of the traditional coefficient of friction. An associated hypothesis concerns the indicated existence of a fourth rubber force, surface deformation hysteresis, which is theorized to be independent of tire loading during tire sliding. Robert H. Smith and Waheed Uddin Copyright © 2016 Robert H. Smith and Waheed Uddin. All rights reserved. A New Integrated Approach for the Prediction of the Load Independent Power Losses of Gears: Development of a Mesh-Handling Algorithm to Reduce the CFD Simulation Time Sun, 03 Apr 2016 13:07:09 +0000 To improve the efficiency of geared transmissions, prediction models are required. Literature provides only simplified models that often do not take into account the influence of many parameters on the power losses. Recently some works based on CFD simulations have been presented. The drawback of this technique is the time demand needed for the computation. In this work a less time-consuming numerical calculation method based on some specific mesh-handling techniques was extensively applied. With this approach the windage phenomena were simulated and compared with experimental data in terms of power loss. The comparison shows the capability of the numerical approach to capture the phenomena that can be observed experimentally. The powerful capabilities of this approach in terms of both prediction accuracy and computational effort efficiency make it a potential tool for an advanced design of gearboxes as well as a powerful tool for further comprehension of the physics behind the gearbox lubrication. F. Concli, A. Della Torre, C. Gorla, and G. Montenegro Copyright © 2016 F. Concli et al. All rights reserved. Tribological Behavior of Laser Textured Hot Stamping Dies Sun, 03 Apr 2016 07:53:37 +0000 Hot stamping of high strength steels has been continuously developed in the automotive industry to improve mechanical properties and surface quality of stamped components. One of the main challenges faced by researchers and technicians is to improve stamping dies lifetime by reducing the wear caused by high pressures and temperatures present during the process. This paper analyzes the laser texturing of hot stamping dies and discusses how different surfaces textures influence the lubrication and wear mechanisms. To this purpose, experimental tests and numerical simulation were carried out to define the die region to be texturized and to characterize the textured surface topography before and after hot stamping tests with a 3D surface profilometer and scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that laser texturing influences the lubrication at the interface die-hot sheet and improves die lifetime. In this work, the best texture presented dimples with the highest diameter, depth, and spacing, with the surface topography and dimples morphology practically preserved after the hot stamping tests. Andre Shihomatsu, Sergio Tonini Button, and Iris Bento da Silva Copyright © 2016 Andre Shihomatsu et al. All rights reserved. Performance of a Ferrofluid Based Rough Parallel Plate Slider Bearing: A Comparison of Three Magnetic Fluid Flow Models Wed, 30 Mar 2016 16:20:14 +0000 Efforts have been made to present a comparison of all the three magnetic fluid flow models (Neuringer-Rosensweig model, Shliomis model, and Jenkins model) so far as the performance of a magnetic fluid based parallel plate rough slider bearing is concerned. The stochastic model of Christensen and Tonder is adopted for the evaluation of effect of transverse surface roughness. The stochastically averaged Reynolds-type equation is solved with suitable boundary conditions to obtain the pressure distribution resulting in the calculation of load carrying capacity. The graphical results establish that for a bearing’s long life period the Shliomis model may be employed for higher loads. However, for lower to moderate loads, the Neuringer-Rosensweig model may be deployed. Jimit R. Patel and G. M. Deheri Copyright © 2016 Jimit R. Patel and G. M. Deheri. All rights reserved. Friction Reduction Capabilities of Silicate Compounds Used in an Engine Lubricant on Worn Surfaces Mon, 29 Feb 2016 08:08:37 +0000 Effects of magnesium silicate and alumina dispersed in engine lubricant on friction, wear, and tribosurface characteristics are studied under boundary and mixed lubrication conditions. Magnesium silicate and alumina, henceforth called as friction reducing compounds (FRC), were dispersed in engine lubricant in very low concentration of 0.01% weight/volume. Four-ball wear test rig was used to assess friction coefficient and wear scar diameter of balls lubricated with and without FRC based engine lubricant. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) was used to analyse the tribosurface properties and elemental distributions on worn surfaces of the balls. Test results revealed that FRC based engine lubricant increases friction coefficient but marginally reduces wear scar diameter of new balls, whereas, test on the worn-out balls running on FRC based engine lubricants shows 46% reduction in friction coefficient compared to the new balls running on engine lubricants without FRC. Investigations on tribosurfaces with respect to morphology and elemental distribution showed the presence of Si and O elements in micropores of the worn surfaces of the balls, indicating role of FRC in friction coefficient reduction and antiwear properties. These FRC based engine lubricants may be used in the in-use engines. Devendra Singh, G. D. Thakre, L. N. Sivakumar Konathala, and V. V. D. N. Prasad Copyright © 2016 Devendra Singh et al. All rights reserved. Engineering Software Solution for Thermal Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Using Multiphysics Software Mon, 01 Feb 2016 13:41:48 +0000 The complexity of thermal elastohydrodynamic lubrication (TEHL) problems has led to a variety of specialised numerical approaches ranging from finite difference based direct and inverse iterative methods such as Multilevel Multi-Integration solvers, via differential deflection methods, to finite element based full-system approaches. Hence, not only knowledge of the physical and technical relationships but also knowledge of the numerical procedures and solvers is necessary to perform TEHL simulations. Considering the state of the art of multiphysics software, the authors note the absence of a commercial software package for solving TEHL problems embedded in larger multiphysics software. By providing guidelines on how to implement a TEHL simulation model in commercial multiphysics software, the authors want to stimulate the research in computational tribology, so that, hopefully, the research focus can be shifted even more on physical modelling instead of numerical modelling. Validations, as well as result examples of the suggested TEHL model by means of simulated coefficients of friction, coated surfaces, and nonsmooth surfaces, highlight the flexibility and simplicity of the presented approach. Thomas Lohner, Andreas Ziegltrum, Johann-Paul Stemplinger, and Karsten Stahl Copyright © 2016 Thomas Lohner et al. All rights reserved. True Stability of Lubricants Determined Using the Ball-on-Disk Test Mon, 01 Feb 2016 07:09:37 +0000 True stability of lubricants can be determined when there is minimum change in the contact area and also the intervention of wear debris in the contact zone. Here, we have used the ball-on-disk instrument with the migrating point contact, that is, relative motion between the ball and disk condition to fix the contact area and minimize the wear debris at the contact zone. The jump in the friction coefficient indicates the film failure, which appeared earlier for the motor oil 5W30 compared to 5W40. Such profile was not recorded in absence of relative motion. Therefore, 5W40 was considered to have a better lubricant stability than 5W30. Applying the same test condition to the natural lubricants shows that glycerol has better lubricant stability than glycerol-water mixture. Superior true lubricant stability by glycerol and 5W40 can be related to its high viscosity. However, they were less wear resistant compared to low viscosity lubricants like 5W30 and glycerol-water. We suspect the role of microscopic wear debris at the contact zone for this behavior although it should have been avoided in the migrating point contact condition. Overall, ball-on-disk instrument with a migrating point contact condition is an effective technique to determine the stability of lubricants. Angela Maria Tortora and Deepak Halenahally Veeregowda Copyright © 2016 Angela Maria Tortora and Deepak Halenahally Veeregowda. All rights reserved. Process Optimization and Wear Behavior of Red Mud Reinforced Aluminum Composites Tue, 26 Jan 2016 06:33:33 +0000 This work presents the application of hybrid approach for optimizing the dry sliding wear behavior of red mud based aluminum metal matrix composites (MMCs). The essential input parameters are identified as applied load, sliding velocity, wt.% of reinforcement, and hardness of the counterpart material, whereas the output responses are specific wear rate and Coefficient of Friction (COF). The Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) is performed to optimize the multiple performance characteristics simultaneously. The Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and entropy methods are applied to evaluate the values of weights corresponding to each output response. The experimental result shows that the wt.% of reinforcements (%) followed by the sliding velocity (%) contributed more to affecting the dry sliding wear behavior. The optimized conditions are verified through the confirmation test, which exhibited an improvement in the grey relational grade of specific wear rate and COF by 0.3 and 0.034, respectively. Rajesh Shanmugavel, Thirumalai Kumaran Sundaresan, Uthayakumar Marimuthu, and Pethuraj Manickaraj Copyright © 2016 Rajesh Shanmugavel et al. All rights reserved. A Quality Function Deployment-Based Model for Cutting Fluid Selection Thu, 21 Jan 2016 14:19:21 +0000 Cutting fluid is applied for numerous reasons while machining a workpiece, like increasing tool life, minimizing workpiece thermal deformation, enhancing surface finish, flushing away chips from cutting surface, and so on. Hence, choosing a proper cutting fluid for a specific machining application becomes important for enhanced efficiency and effectiveness of a manufacturing process. Cutting fluid selection is a complex procedure as the decision depends on many complicated interactions, including work material’s machinability, rigorousness of operation, cutting tool material, metallurgical, chemical, and human compatibility, reliability and stability of fluid, and cost. In this paper, a decision making model is developed based on quality function deployment technique with a view to respond to the complex character of cutting fluid selection problem and facilitate judicious selection of cutting fluid from a comprehensive list of available alternatives. In the first example, HD-CUTSOL is recognized as the most suitable cutting fluid for drilling holes in titanium alloy with tungsten carbide tool and in the second example, for performing honing operation on stainless steel alloy with cubic boron nitride tool, CF5 emerges out as the best honing fluid. Implementation of this model would result in cost reduction through decreased manpower requirement, enhanced workforce efficiency, and efficient information exploitation. Kanika Prasad and Shankar Chakraborty Copyright © 2016 Kanika Prasad and Shankar Chakraborty. All rights reserved. The Application of Response Surface Methodology in the Investigation of the Tribological Behavior of Palm Cooking Oil Blended in Engine Oil Tue, 19 Jan 2016 14:26:24 +0000 The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal design parameters and to indicate which of the design parameters are statistically significant for obtaining a low coefficient of friction (COF) and low wear rate with waste palm oil blended with SAE 40. The tribology performance was evaluated using a piston-ring-liner contact tester. The design of experiment (DOE) was constructed by using response surface methodology (RSM) to minimize the number of experimental conditions and to develop a mathematical model between the key process parameters such as rotational speeds (200 rpm to 300 rpm), volume concentration (0% to 10% waste oil), and applied loads (2 kg to 9 kg). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was also carried out to check the adequacy of the empirical models developed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the damage features at the worn surface under lubricant contact conditions. M. H. Sakinah, A. K. Amirruddin, K. Kadirgama, D. Ramasamy, M. M. Rahman, and M. M. Noor Copyright © 2016 M. H. Sakinah et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Eta-Phase on Wear Behavior of WC-Co Carbides Sun, 03 Jan 2016 12:40:49 +0000 Cemented carbides, also known as Widia, are hard metals produced by sintering process and widely used in mechanical machining. They show high cutting capacity and good wear resistance; consequently, they result to be excellent materials for manufacturing cutting tools and sandblast nozzles. In this work, the wear resistance of WC-Co carbides containing Eta-phase, a secondary phase present in the hard metals when a carbon content deficiency occurs, is analyzed. Different mixtures of carbide are prepared and sintered, with different weight percentages of carbon, in order to form Eta-phase and then analyze how the carbon content influences the wear resistance of the material. This characterization is carried out by abrasive wear tests. The test parameters are chosen considering the working conditions of sandblast nozzles. Additional information is gathered through microscopic observations and the evaluation of hardness and microhardness of the different mixtures. The analyses highlight that there is a limit of carbon content below which bad sintering occurs. Considering the mixtures without these sintering problems, they show a wear resistance depending on the size and distribution of the Eta-phase; moreover, the one with high carbon content deficiency shows the best performance. A. Formisano, F. Capece Minutolo, A. Caraviello, L. Carrino, M. Durante, and A. Langella Copyright © 2016 A. Formisano et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Evaluation of Erosion of Gunmetal under Asymmetrical Shaped Sand Particle Mon, 07 Dec 2015 13:43:38 +0000 The erosion characteristics of gunmetal have been evaluated practically at different operating conditions. Asymmetrical silica sand (SiO2) is taken into account as erodent within range of 300–600 μm. The impact velocity within 30–50 m/sec, impact angle 15–900, and stand off distance 15–25 mm are inspected as other relevant operating test conditions. The maximum level of erosion is obtained at impact angle 15° which indicates the ductile manner of the tested gunmetal. The higher the impact velocity, the higher the erosion rate as almost linear fashion is observed. Mass loss of gunmetal reduces with the increase of stand-off distance. A dimensional analysis, erosion efficiency (η), and relationship between friction and erosion indicate the prominent correlation. The test results are designated using Taguchi’s and ANOVA concept. ratio indicates that there are 1.72% deviations that are estimated between predicted and experimental results. To elaborately analyze the results, ANN and GMDH methods are mentioned. After erosion process of tested composite, the damage propagation on surfaces is examined using SEM for the confirmation of possible nature of wear behavior. The elemental composition of eroded test samples at varying percentage of gunmetal is analyzed by EDX analysis. Mohammad Asaduzzaman Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar Debnath, Dewan Muhammad Nuruzzaman, and Md. Monirul Islam Copyright © 2015 Mohammad Asaduzzaman Chowdhury et al. All rights reserved. Microstructure Characteristics and Properties of HVOF Sprayed Ni-Based Alloy Nano-h-BN Self-Lubricating Composite Coatings Wed, 25 Nov 2015 11:43:38 +0000 A Ni-based alloy/nano-h-BN self-lubricating composite coating was produced on medium carbon steel by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying technique. The powder feedstocks for HVOF spraying were prepared by ball milling and agglomerated the nano-h-BN with Ni-based alloy powders. The microstructure and mechanical properties of coatings have been investigated. With the increasing of h-BN contents, some delaminations appeared gradually in the coatings and a continuous network with h-BN phase embedded formed in the metallic matrix. The average microhardness of the self-lubricating coating was a little lower for the addition of soft solid lubricant. The friction coefficient of coatings is in the ranges of 0.38–0.48 and 0.38–0.52 at ambient temperature and 400°C, respectively. The maximum bonding strength of coatings reached 23.83 MPa. Xiaofeng Zhang, Long Zhang, and Zhenyi Huang Copyright © 2015 Xiaofeng Zhang et al. All rights reserved. A New Design of the Universal Test Rig to Measure the Wear Characterizations of Polymer Acetal Gears (Spur, Helical, Bevel, and Worm) Thu, 03 Sep 2015 16:42:18 +0000 This work aims to study the wear characterization of common types of acetal polymer gears (spur, helical, bevel, and worm) using a new TS universal test rig, in order to obtain reliable results and as a reference when compared with acetal nanocomposite gears later. The TS universal test rig consists of three different units that are connected by a main driver shaft and a pair of constantly meshing metal spur gears, which transfer power to the bevel and worm test units. The first unit is used to test the bevel gears, the second unit is used to test the spur and helical gears, and the third unit is used to test the worm gears. The loading mechanism is similarly designed to block the brake mechanism. Hobbing and milling machines were used to machine an injection-moulded polymer flanges and produce the tested gears. All gear pairs, except the worm gear, have identical gear ratios. The experiments were performed at speed 1420 rpm and the torque was 4 Nm. The results showed that the wear rates (in the form of weight loss) of spur gears were consistent with the previous results and the other gear types had larger wear rates. Samy Yousef, T. A. Osman, M. Khattab, Ahmed A. Bahr, and Ahmed M. Youssef Copyright © 2015 Samy Yousef et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Ratio on the Performance of Two-Lobe Pressure Dam Bearing: Micropolar Lubricated Wed, 25 Feb 2015 06:10:36 +0000 Two-lobe pressure dam bearings are commonly used in high speed rotating machineries. Their use is considered more stable than plain cylindrical bearings. Such bearings have a dam in the upper half whereas the lower half is provided with a relief track. Performance of two-lobe pressure dam bearings under micropolar fluid is evaluated. Finite element method is used to solve the modified Reynolds equation. Fluid film pressures are obtained by solving modified Reynolds equation. Thus pressure obtained is used to find performance characteristics of this bearing. The dynamic performance characteristics are studied at various ratios. Three ratios are considered 1.6, 2.0, and 2.4 for the analysis purpose. Results obtained are presented for various micropolar parameters. Results show that stability of two-lobe pressure dam bearings increases with decrease in aspect ratio (). Sanyam Sharma and C. M. Krishna Copyright © 2015 Sanyam Sharma and C. M. Krishna. All rights reserved. Couple Stress Squeeze Films with VPD in a Curved Circular Geometry Wed, 11 Feb 2015 07:04:40 +0000 The problem of couple stress squeeze films considering viscosity pressure dependence (VPD) has been analysed in a curved circular geometry. Using Stokes microcontinuum theory and the Barus formula, the Reynolds type equation has been derived. The approximate analytical expressions for the squeeze film pressure and load carrying capacity are obtained using a perturbation technique. The numerical solutions for the squeeze film pressure and load carrying capacity are presented for the sinusoidal motion of the upper curved disk, assuming an exponential form for the curvature. The effects of curvature, the non-Newtonian couple stresses, and VPD and their combined effects are investigated through the squeeze film pressure and the load carrying capacity of the squeeze film. Vimala Ponnuswamy and Sumathi Govindaraj Copyright © 2015 Vimala Ponnuswamy and Sumathi Govindaraj. All rights reserved. Effect of Surface Roughness on the Squeeze Film Characteristics of Circular Plates in the Presence of Conducting Couplestress Fluid and Transverse Magnetic Field Thu, 29 Jan 2015 15:28:28 +0000 The combined effect of surface roughness and magnetic field on the performance characteristic of the circular plates lubricated with conducting couplestress fluid (CCSF) has been studied. On the basis of the Christensen Stochastic model, the generalized stochastic Reynold’s equation is derived. Modified equations for the nondimensional pressure, load load-carrying capacity, and squeeze film time are derived. The results are presented both numerically and graphically and compared with conducting smooth surface case. It is observed that the surface roughness effects are more pronounced for couplestresses as compared to nonconducting Newtonian fluid (NCNF) in the presence of magnetic field. Syeda Tasneem Fathima, N. B. Naduvinamani, J. Santhosh Kumar, and B. N. Hanumagowda Copyright © 2015 Syeda Tasneem Fathima et al. All rights reserved. Prediction and Analysis of Engine Friction Power of a Diesel Engine Influenced by Engine Speed, Load, and Lubricant Viscosity Tue, 09 Dec 2014 09:46:50 +0000 Automotive industries made a paradigm shift in selection of viscometrics of engine lubricant, from higher to lower viscosity grade, for improving fuel economy of vehicles. Engine fuel consumption is influenced by friction between the various engine components. Engine friction power (FP) of a direct injection diesel engine is calculated from the measured value of in-cylinder pressure signals at various operating conditions. For predicting FP, as a function of speed, load, and lubricant viscosity, a full factorial design of experiments (DOE) was formulated and an empirical correlation was developed. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for analyzing the dominant parameters and their interactions, which influence engine friction power significantly. Predicted results of engine FP are in good agreement with measured values at all operating points. ANOVA and RSM analysis revealed that the significant parameters influencing engine FP are speed, load, viscosity, speed-load, and speed-viscosity. The effect of engine lubricant viscosity on friction power of a diesel engine was insignificant at low speed, whereas, at high speed, it played a vital role. The empirical relation developed for predicting FP is very useful in estimating engine friction power for various combinations of engine speeds, loads, and lubricant viscosity without running the engine. Devendra Singh, Fengshou Gu, John D. Fieldhouse, Nishan Singh, and S. K. Singal Copyright © 2014 Devendra Singh et al. All rights reserved. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis and Three-Body Abrasive Wear Behaviour of Thermoplastic Copolyester Elastomer Composites Wed, 19 Nov 2014 13:48:10 +0000 Various amounts of short fibers (glass and carbon) and particulate fillers like polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), silicon carbide (SiC), and alumina (Al2O3) were systematically introduced into the thermoplastic copolyester elastomer (TCE) matrix for reinforcement purpose. The mechanical properties such as storage modulus, loss modulus, and Tan δ by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and three-body abrasive wear performance on a dry sand rubber wheel abrasion tester have been investigated. For abrasive wear study, the experiments were planned according to orthogonal array by considering three factors and three levels. The complex moduli for TCE hybrid composites were pushed to a higher level relative to the TCE filled PTFE composite. At lower temperatures (in the glassy region), the storage modulus increases with increase in wt.% of reinforcement (fiber + fillers) and the value is maximum for the composite with 40 wt.% reinforcement. The loss modulus and damping peaks were also found to be higher by the incorporation of SiC and Al2O3 microfillers. The routine abrasive wear test results indicated that TCE filled PTFE composite exhibited better abrasion resistance. Improvements in the abrasion resistance, however, have not been achieved by short-fiber and particlaute filler reinforcements. From the Taguchi’s experimental findings, optimal combination of control factors were obtained for minimum wear volume and also predictive correlations were proposed. Further, the worn surface morphology of the samples was discussed. Hemanth Rajashekaraiah, Sekar Mohan, Pramoda Kumari Pallathadka, and Suresha Bhimappa Copyright © 2014 Hemanth Rajashekaraiah et al. All rights reserved. Jet-Impingement Effects of Alumina-Nanofluid on Aluminum and Copper Thu, 21 Aug 2014 09:40:32 +0000 Nanofluids are nanosize-powder suspensions that are of interest for their enhanced thermal transport properties. They are studied as promising alternatives to ordinary cooling fluids, but the tribiological effects of nanofluids on cooling-system materials are largely unknown. The authors have developed methodology that uses jet impingement on typical cooling-system materials to test such effects. The work is presented of the authors’ research on the interactions of a typical nanofluid (2% volume of alumina nanopowders in a solution of ethylene glycol in water) which is impinged on aluminum and copper specimens for tests as long as 112 hours. The surface changes were assessed by roughness measurements and optical-microscope studies. Comparative roughness indicate that both the reference cooling fluid of ethylene glycol and water and its nanofluid with 2% alumina produce roughness changes in aluminum (even for the shortest 3-hour test), but no significant roughness differences were observed between them. No significant roughness changes were observed for copper. Microscopy observations, however, show different surface modifications in both aluminum and copper by both the nanofluid and its base fluid. The possible mechanisms of early erosion are discussed. These investigations demonstrate suitable methods for the testing of nanofluid effects on cooling system-materials. Gustavo J. Molina, Fnu Aktaruzzaman, Whitney Stregles, Valentin Soloiu, and Mosfequr Rahman Copyright © 2014 Gustavo J. Molina et al. All rights reserved. Tribological behavior of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb Alloys for Total Hip Prosthesis Mon, 21 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The aim of the study is to evaluate the friction and wear behavior of high-strength alloys Ti-6Al-7Nb used in femoral stem and compare it with a Ti-6Al-4V alloy cylindrical bar corresponding to ISO 5832-3 part 3/01-07-199 standard. The tribological behavior was investigated by wear tests, using ball-on-disc and pin-on-disc tribometers. These tests consisted of measuring the weight loss and the friction coefficient of samples. The oscillating friction and wear tests have been carried out in ambient with oscillating tribotester in accordance with standards ISO 7148, ASTM G99-95a, and ASTM G133-95 under different conditions of normal loads (3, 6, and 10 N) and sliding speeds (1, 15, and 25 mm·s−1). As counter pairs, a 100Cr6 steel ball with 10 mm in diameter was used. Results show that the two alloys had similar friction and wear performance, although their grain structures and compositions are different. Occurrence of large frictional occurred, is probably caused by formation and periodic, localized fracture of a transfer layer. Higher friction with larger fluctuation and higher wear rate was observed at the higher siding speed. The Ti-6Al-4V wear mechanism transforms from ploughing and peeling off wear at low sliding speed to plastic deformation and adhesive wear. Mamoun Fellah, Mohamed Labaïz, Omar Assala, Leila Dekhil, Ahlem Taleb, Hadda Rezag, and Alain Iost Copyright © 2014 Mamoun Fellah et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Surface Roughness and Viscosity-Pressure Dependency on the Couple Stress Squeeze Film Characteristics of Parallel Circular Plates Sun, 25 May 2014 11:08:44 +0000 Combined effects of surface roughness and viscosity-pressure dependency on the couple stress squeeze film characteristics of parallel circular plates are presented. On the basis of Christensen’s stochastic theory, two types of one-dimensional roughness structures, namely, the radial roughness and azimuthal roughness patterns, are considered and the stochastic modified Reynolds equation for these two types of roughness patterns is derived for Stokes couple stress fluid by taking into account variation of viscosity with pressure. The standard perturbation technique is employed to solve the averaged Reynolds equation and closed form expressions for the mean fluid film pressure, load carrying capacity, and squeeze film time are obtained. It is found that the effects of couple stresses and viscosity-pressure dependency are to increase the load carrying capacity, and squeeze film time for both types of roughness patterns. The effect of azimuthal (radial) roughness pattern is to increase (decrease) these squeeze film characteristics as compared to the corresponding smooth case. Neminath Bhujappa Naduvinamani, Siddangouda Apparao, and Ayyappa G. Hiremath Copyright © 2014 Neminath Bhujappa Naduvinamani et al. All rights reserved. Studies on Erosion Behavior of Plasma Sprayed Coatings of Glass Microspheres Premixed with Al2O3 Particles Mon, 31 Mar 2014 08:32:38 +0000 Solid particle erosion (SPE) tests are carried out to evaluate the performance of plasma sprayed coatings of borosilicate glass microspheres (BGM) premixed with Al2O3 particles on metallic substrates. For this purpose, an Air Jet Erosion test rig confirming to ASTM G 76 test standards is used. Relative influence of different operating parameters on erosion rate is assessed by statistical analysis of the experimental findings that are based on Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal array. This analysis helps to identify the most significant factor affecting the erosion wear rate of the coating. The study reveals that the impact velocity, impingement angle, erodent size, and Al2O3 content in the feed stock, in the declining sequence, are the significant factors influencing the wear rate of these coatings. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach is then implemented taking into account training and test procedure to predict the triboperformance of these coatings under wear conditions beyond the experimental range. Further, the microstructural features of the eroded samples are studied from SEM images to identify possible wear mechanisms. Gaurav Gupta and Alok Satapathy Copyright © 2014 Gaurav Gupta and Alok Satapathy. All rights reserved. Characterization and Empirical Modelling of Sliding Wear on Sintered Aluminium-Graphite Composites Sun, 30 Mar 2014 08:33:59 +0000 Aluminium-graphite composites were synthesized using powder metallurgy route. Graphite was added as reinforcement in the range of 0, 3, and 6 weight % and composites were prepared by P/M. Microstructural analysis of the newly synthesized composites was carried out using SEM. The hardness of the composites was studied using Vickers microhardness tester, by applying a load of 1 kg for 5 sec. Also the amount of porosity was determined. Further the wear test was conducted on the sintered specimens using pin-on-disc wear apparatus according to ASTM-G99 standards. A regression model was developed to predict the wear rate of the specimen. Then the worn images were studied using SEM based on response surface methodology in order to understand the various wear mechanisms involved. The study revealed that mild wear, oxidational wear, plowing, cutting, and plastic deformation are the main mechanisms responsible for causing the wear. Amrishraj Doraisamy and Senthilvelan Thiagarajan Copyright © 2014 Amrishraj Doraisamy and Senthilvelan Thiagarajan. All rights reserved. Analysis of Tribological Behavior of Carbon Nanotube Based Industrial Mineral Gear Oil 250 cSt Viscosity Thu, 13 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The paper investigates the exceptional antiwear and extreme pressure properties of multiwalled carbon nanotube based mineral oil. Different samples of oil containing varying proportions of MWNT (MWNT) and graphite were prepared. The samples were tested for their antiwear and load bearing capacity according to ASTM G99 and ASTM D-2783 standards. After pass load test in four ball tester the rubbed surfaces were investigated with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images. The wear test results show a decrease wear by 70–75% in case of multiwalled nanotube based mineral oil as compared with pure mineral oil. Furthermore, it has been observed that the load bearing capacity in case of multiwalled carbon nanotube based mineral oil increases by 20% as compared to pure mineral oil. A comparison in the antiwear and load bearing capacity properties of graphite and nanotube based mineral oil was studied which showed the inefficiency of graphite based lubricant over MWNT based oil. Thus, the finding would be helpful in developing new nanoparticle based lubricants. Shubrajit Bhaumik, S. Prabhu, and Kingsly Jeba Singh Copyright © 2014 Shubrajit Bhaumik et al. All rights reserved. Solid Particle Erosion of Date Palm Leaf Fiber Reinforced Polyvinyl Alcohol Composites Wed, 22 Jan 2014 15:03:56 +0000 Solid particle erosion behavior of short date palm leaf (DPL) fiber reinforced polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite has been studied using silica sand particles (200 ± 50 μm) as an erodent at different impingement angles (15–90°) and impact velocities (48–109 m/s). The influence of fiber content (wt% of DPL fiber) on erosion rate of PVA/DPL composite has also been investigated. The neat PVA shows maximum erosion rate at 30° impingement angle whereas PVA/DPL composites exhibit maximum erosion rate at 45° impingement angle irrespective of fiber loading showing semiductile behavior. The erosion efficiency of PVA and its composites varies from 0.735 to 16.289% for different impact velocities studied. The eroded surfaces were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) to understand the erosion mechanism. Jyoti R. Mohanty, Sankar N. Das, Harish C. Das, Tapan K. Mahanta, and Sataya B. Ghadei Copyright © 2014 Jyoti R. Mohanty et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Nanoadditives with Surfactant on the Surface Characteristics of Electroless Nickel Coating on Magnesium-Based Composites Reinforced with MWCNT Sun, 29 Dec 2013 17:24:53 +0000 An experimental investigation has been carried out on optimizing process parameters of electroless nickel-phosphorous coatings on magnesium composite reinforced with carbon nanotube. A comprehensive experimental study of electroless Ni–P coatings on magnesium composite reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotube under specific coating conditions was performed. The electroless coating bath consists of nickel sulphate (26 g/L), sodium hypo-phosphite (30 g/L) as reducing agent, sodium acetate (16 g/L) as stabilizer, and ammonium hydrogen difluoride (8 g/L) as the complexing agent. The surfactant SLS was added in the solution for better wetting and spreading of coating on substrate. The stabilizer thiourea (1 ppm) was added in the bath to prevent decomposition of bath. Different nanoadditives such as ZnO, Al2O3, SiO with various concentrations were used in the bath and their influence on coating process characteristics were studied The nano additives such as ZnO, Al2O3, SiO were added at concentrations of 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% in the EN bath. The output parameters such as surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear rate, and surface morphology were measured. Surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the proposed method resulted in significant improvement on the quality of the coatings produced. Ranganathan Dhinakaran, Rasu Elansezhian, and Arunachalam Arumugam Lalitha Copyright © 2013 Ranganathan Dhinakaran et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Temperature and Electric Field on the Damping and Stiffness Characteristics of ER Fluid Short Squeeze Film Dampers Thu, 21 Nov 2013 16:16:43 +0000 Squeeze film dampers are novel rotor dynamic devices used to alleviate small amplitude, large force vibrations and are used in conjunction with antifriction bearings in aircraft jet engine bearings to provide external damping as these possess very little inherent damping. Electrorheological (ER) fluids are controllable fluids in which the rheological properties of the fluid, particularly viscosity, can be controlled in accordance with the requirements of the rotor dynamic system by controlling the intensity of the applied electric field and this property can be utilized in squeeze film dampers, to provide variable stiffness and damping at a particular excitation frequency. The paper investigates the effect of temperature and electric field on the apparent viscosity and dynamic (stiffness and damping characteristics) of ER fluid (suspension of diatomite in transformer oil) using the available literature. These characteristics increase with the field as the viscosity increases with the field. However, these characteristics decrease with increase in temperature and shear strain rate as the viscosity of the fluid decreases with temperature and shear strain rate. The temperature is an important parameter as the aircraft jet engine rotors are located in a zone of high temperature gradients and the damper fluid is susceptible to large variations in temperature. H. P. Jagadish and L. Ravikumar Copyright © 2013 H. P. Jagadish and L. Ravikumar. All rights reserved.