Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Urology
Volume 2010, Article ID 871356, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/871356
Research Article

Coordinated Increased Expression of Cyclooxygenase2 and Nuclear Factor 𝜅 B Is a Steady Feature of Urinary Bladder Carcinogenesis

1Department of Pathology, Medical School, University of Patras, 26504 Rion, Greece
2Department of Urology, General Hospital of Nikaia, 18543 Peiraeus, Greece
3Department of Anatomy and Histology-Embryology, Medical School, University of Patras, 26504 Rion, Greece
4Department of Pathology, Aegion General Hospital, 25100 Aegion, Greece
5Department of Microbiology, General Hospital of Nikaia, 18543 Peiraeus, Greece

Received 7 June 2010; Accepted 15 July 2010

Academic Editor: Douglas S. Scherr

Copyright © 2010 Stylianos Kontos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. B. C. Avritscher, C. D. Cooksley, H. B. Grossman, A. L. Sabichi, L. Hamblin, C. P. Dinney, and L. S. Elting, “Clinical model of lifetime cost of treating bladder cancer and associated complications,” Urology, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 549–553, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  2. W. A. Schulz, “Understanding urothelial carcinoma through cancer pathways,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 119, no. 7, pp. 1513–1518, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  3. B. B. Aggarwal, S. Shishodia, S. K. Sandur, M. K. Pandey, and G. Sethi, “Inflammation and cancer: how hot is the link?” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 72, no. 11, pp. 1605–1621, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  4. C. Tsatsanis, A. Androulidaki, M. Venihaki, and A. N. Margioris, “Signalling networks regulating cyclooxygenase-2,” International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 1654–1661, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  5. A. J. Dannenberg and K. Subbaramaiah, “Targeting cyclooxygenase-2 in human neoplasia: rationale and promise,” Cancer Cell, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 431–436, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. E. Harris, “Cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) and the inflammogenesis of cancer,” Sub-Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 42, pp. 93–126, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Kumar, Y. Takada, A. M. Boriek, and B. B. Aggarwal, “Nuclear factor-κB: its role in health and disease,” Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 82, no. 7, pp. 434–448, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. S. Baldwin Jr., “The NF-κB and IκB proteins: new discoveries and insights,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 14, pp. 649–681, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. J. Martin and M. T. Gillespie, “Receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL): another link between breast and bone,” Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 2–4, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. G. Sethi, B. Sung, and B. B. Aggarwal, “Nuclear factor-κB activation: from bench to bedside,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 233, no. 1, pp. 21–31, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  11. H. Ni, M. Ergin, and M. Ergin, “Analysis of expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in multiple myeloma: downregulation of NF-κB induces apoptosis,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 279–286, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. E. Davis, K. D. Brown, U. Siebenlist, and L. M. Staudt, “Constitutive nuclear factor κB activity is required for survival of activated B cell-like diffuse large B cell lymphoma cells,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 194, no. 12, pp. 1861–1874, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. K. Biswas, S.-C. Dai, A. Cruz, B. Weiser, E. Graner, and A. B. Pardee, “The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB): a potential therapeutic target for estrogen receptor negative breast cancers,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 98, no. 18, pp. 10386–10391, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  14. S. Fujioka, G. M. Sclabas, and G. M. Sclabas, “Function of nuclear factor κB in pancreatic cancer metastasis,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 346–354, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Suh, F. Payvandi, L. C. Edelstein, P. S. Amenta, W.-X. Zong, C. Gélinas, and A. B. Rabson, “Mechanisms of constitutive NF-κB activation in human prostate cancer cells,” Prostate, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 183–200, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  16. G. Dong, Z. Chen, T. Kato, and C. Van Waes, “The host environment promotes the constitutive activation of nuclear factor-κB and proinflammatory cytokine expression during metastatic tumor progression of murine squamous cell carcinoma,” Cancer Research, vol. 59, no. 14, pp. 3495–3504, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. S. Lind, S. N. Hochwald, and S. N. Hochwald, “Nuclear factor-κB is upregulated in colorectal cancer,” Surgery, vol. 130, no. 2, pp. 363–369, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  18. G. Levidou, A. A. Saetta, and A. A. Saetta, “Clinical significance of nuclear factor (NF)-κB levels in urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder,” Virchows Archiv, vol. 452, no. 3, pp. 295–304, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. M. Karin, Y. Cao, F. R. Greten, and Z.-W. Li, “NF-κB in cancer: from innocent bystander to major culprit,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 301–310, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. F. H. Sarkar and Y. Li, “Using chemopreventive agents to enhance the efficacy of cancer therapy,” Cancer Research, vol. 66, no. 7, pp. 3347–3350, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  21. J. I. Epstein, M. B. Amin, and M. B. Amin, “The World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology consensus classification of urothelial (transitional cell) neoplasms of the urinary bladder. Bladder Consensus Conference Committee,” American Journal of Surgical Pathology, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 1435–1448, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. H. Sobin and I. D. Fleming, “TNM Classification of Malignant Tumors, fifth edition (1997). Union Internationale Contre le Cancer and the American Joint Committee on Cancer,” Cancer, vol. 80, no. 9, pp. 1803–1804, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  23. P. A. Konstantinopoulos, A. Kominea, and A. Kominea, “Oestrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is abundantly expressed in normal colonic mucosa, but declines in colon adenocarcinoma paralleling the tumour's dedifferentiation,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 1251–1258, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. V. C. Sandulache, A. Parekh, H.-S. Li-Korotky, J. E. Dohar, and P. A. Hebda, “Prostaglandin E2 differentially modulates human fetal and adult dermal fibroblast migration and contraction: implication for wound healing,” Wound Repair and Regeneration, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 633–643, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  25. P. J. Wild, L. A. Kunz-Schughart, and L. A. Kunz-Schughart, “High-throughput tissue microarray analysis of COX2 expression in urinary bladder cancer,” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 385–391, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. V. Margulis, S. F. Shariat, R. Ashfaq, M. Thompson, A. I. Sagalowsky, J.-T. Hsieh, and Y. Lotan, “Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in normal urothelium, and superficial and advanced transitional cell carcinoma of bladder,” Journal of Urology, vol. 177, no. 3, pp. 1163–1168, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. P. Eschwege, “Cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors and urologic and gynaecologic cancers,” Bulletin du Cancer, vol. 91, supplement 2, pp. S113–S116, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. P. Celec, “Nuclear factor kappa B—molecular biomedicine: the next generation,” Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, vol. 58, no. 6-7, pp. 365–371, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  29. H. S. Kadhim, T. I. Al-Jeboori, and M. S. Tawfik, “Possible role of nuclear factor κkB detected by in situ hybridization in the pathogenesis of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder,” Journal Medical Libanais, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 196–199, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L. Lessard, A.-M. Mes-Masson, L. Lamarre, L. Wall, J.-B. Lattouf, and F. Saad, “NF-κB nuclear localization and its prognostic significance in prostate cancer,” BJU International, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 417–420, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. Schooley, P. Zhu, S. K. Dower, and E. E. Qwarnström, “Regulation of nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB relA: evidence for complex dynamics at the single-cell level,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 369, part 2, pp. 331–339, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  32. M. S. Hayden and S. Ghosh, “Signaling to NF-κB,” Genes and Development, vol. 18, no. 18, pp. 2195–2224, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. G.-Z. Yang, L. Li, H.-Y. Ding, and J.-S. Zhou, “Cyclooxygenase-2 is over-expressed in Chinese esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and correlated with NF-κB: an immunohistochemical study,” Experimental and Molecular Pathology, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 214–218, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  34. A. Nadjar, V. Tridon, M. J. May, S. Ghosh, R. Dantzer, T. Amédée, and P. Parnet, “NFκB activates in vivo the synthesis of inducible Cox-2 in the brain,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 1047–1059, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  35. D. P. Cherukuri, A.-C. Goulet, H. Inoue, and M. A. Nelson, “Selenomethionine regulates cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression through nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in colon cancer cells,” Cancer Biology and Therapy, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 175–180, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. E. M. Wolff, G. Liang, and G. Liang, “RUNX3 methylation reveals that bladder tumors are older in patients with a history of smoking,” Cancer Research, vol. 68, no. 15, pp. 6208–6214, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  37. B. Tian and A. R. Brasier, “Identification of a nuclear factor kappa B-dependent gene network,” Recent Progress in Hormone Research, vol. 58, pp. 95–130, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. J. Thun, S. J. Henley, and C. Patrono, “Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as anticancer agents: mechanistic, pharmacologic, and clinical issues,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 252–266, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. R. Siwak, S. Shishodia, B. B. Aggarwal, and R. Kurzrock, “Curcumin-induced antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in melanoma cells are associated with suppression of IκB kinase and nuclear factor κB activity and are independent of the B-Raf/mitogen-activated/ extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway and the Akt pathway,” Cancer, vol. 104, no. 4, pp. 879–890, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  40. S. Lev-Ari, L. Strier, and L. Strier, “Celecoxib and curcumin synergistically inhibit the growth of colorectal cancer cells,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 11, no. 18, pp. 6738–6744, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus