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Advances in Urology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 421709, 8 pages
Review Article

Surveillance and Treatment of Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer in the USA

1Department of Urologic Surgery, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
2Allergan Inc., P.O. Box 19534, Irvine, CA 92623, USA
3Xcenda, 4114 Woodlands Parkway Suite 500, Palm Harbor, FL 34685, USA

Received 2 December 2011; Accepted 22 February 2012

Academic Editor: Peter E. Clark

Copyright © 2012 Daniel A. Barocas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Seventy percent of newly diagnosed bladder cancers are classified as non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and are often associated with high rates of recurrence that require lifelong surveillance. Currently available treatment options for NMIBC are associated with toxicities that limit their use, and actual practice patterns vary depending upon physician and patient characteristics. In addition, bladder cancer has a high economic and humanistic burden in the United States (US) population and has been cited as one of the most costly cancers to treat. An unmet need exists for new treatment options associated with fewer complications, better patient compliance, and decreased healthcare costs. Increased prevention of recurrence through greater adherence to evidence-based guidelines and the development of novel therapies could therefore result in substantial savings to the healthcare system.