Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Urology
Volume 2012, Article ID 530121, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/530121
Review Article

The 5 Alpha-Reductase Isozyme Family: A Review of Basic Biology and Their Role in Human Diseases

Department of Urology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA

Received 15 July 2011; Revised 11 September 2011; Accepted 27 September 2011

Academic Editor: Colleen Nelson

Copyright © 2012 Faris Azzouni et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Citations to this Article [106 citations]

The following is the list of published articles that have cited the current article.

  • Abdulmaged M. Traish, “5α-Reductases in Human Physiology: An Unfolding Story,” Endocrine Practice, vol. 1, no. -1, pp. 1–38, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ann Boyapati, and Rodney Sinclair, “Combination therapy with finasteride and low-dose dutasteride in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia,” Australasian Journal of Dermatology, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 49–51, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Abdulmaged M. Traish, “5α-Reductases in Human Physiology: An Unfolding Story,” Endocrine Practice, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 965–975, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • G. Corona, G. Rastrelli, E. Maseroli, G. Balercia, A. Sforza, G. Forti, E. Mannucci, and M. Maggi, “Inhibitors of 5 alpha-reductase-related side effects in patients seeking medical care for sexual dysfunction,” Journal Of Endocrinological Investigation, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 915–920, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Albert Dobi, Taduru Sreenath, and Shiv Srivastavapp. 307–328, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Iram Shabir, Madan L Khurana, Eunice Marumudi, Rajesh Khadgawat, and Ariachery C Ammini, “Novel Nucleotide Insertions in two unrelated Indian patients with 5α reductase 2 deficiency leading to premature termination of SRD5A2 enzyme,” Steroids, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Cristina Amaral, Carla Varela, Georgina Correia-da-Silva, Elisiário Tavares da Silva, Rui A. Carvalho, Saul C.P. Costa, Sara C. Cunha, José O. Fernandes, Natércia Teixeira, and Fernanda M.F. Roleira, “New Steroidal 17β-Carboxy Derivatives Present Anti-5α-Reductase Activity and Anti-proliferative Effects in a Human Androgen-Responsive Prostate Cancer Cell Line,” Biochimie, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Bernard Testa, “Organic Stereochemistry Part 8 Prostereoisomerism and the Concept of Product Stereoselectivity in Biochemistry and Xenobiotic Metabolism,” Helvetica Chimica Acta, vol. 96, no. 8, pp. 1409–1451, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yue Wu, Alejandro Godoy, Faris Azzouni, John H. Wilton, Clement Ip, and James L. Mohler, “Prostate cancer cells differ in testosterone accumulation, dihydrotestosterone conversion, and androgen receptor signaling response to steroid 5α-reductase inhibitors,” The Prostate, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Aditya Gupta, and Andrew Charrette, “The Efficacy and Safety of 5α-Reductase Inhibitors in Androgenetic Alopecia: A Network Meta-Analysis and Benefit-Risk Assessment of Finasteride and Dutasteride,” Journal of Dermatological Treatment, pp. 1–16, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Patrick Fenichel, Francoise Paris, Pascal Philibert, Sylvie Hieronimus, Laura Gaspari, Jean-Yves Kurzenne, Patrick Chevallier, Stephane Bermon, Nicolas Chevalier, and Charles Sultan, “Molecular Diagnosis of 5 alpha-Reductase Deficiency in 4 Elite Young Female Athletes Through Hormonal Screening for Hyperandrogenism,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 98, no. 6, pp. E1055–E1059, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jorge A.R. Salvador, Rui M.A. Pinto, and Samuel M. Silvestre, “Steroidal 5α-reductase and 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17) inhibitors useful in the treatment of prostatic diseases,” The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Madhavarao Vupputuri, Madhurima Kandepu, and Harikishore Reddy Devireddy, “5 α-Reductase Type 2 Deficiency: Response to Dihydrotestosterone Gel,” The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 81, no. 8, pp. 821–823, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Cristina Amaral, Sara C. Cunha, Jose O. Fernandes, Elisiario Tavares da Silva, Fernanda M. F. Roleira, Natercia Teixeira, and Georgina Correia-da-Silva, “Development of a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodology for the evaluation of 5 alpha-reductase activity,” Talanta, vol. 107, pp. 154–161, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jorge A. R. Salvador, João F.S. Carvalho, Marco A.C. Neves, Samuel M. Silvestre, Alcino J. Leitão, M. Manuel C. Silva, and M. Luisa Sá E Melo, “Anticancer steroids: Linking natural and semi-synthetic compounds,” Natural Product Reports, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 324–374, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Robic Annie, Faraut Thomas, and Prunier Armelle, “Pathways and genes involved in steroid hormone metabolism in male pigs: a review and update,” The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Liezl M. Bloem, Karl-Heinz Storbeck, Lindie Schloms, and Amanda C. Swart, “11 beta-Hydroxyandrostenedione Returns to the Steroid Arena: Biosynthesis, Metabolism and Function,” Molecules, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 13228–13244, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Rajnish Kumar, Priyanka Malla, Abhilasha Verma, and Manoj Kumar, “Design of potent human steroid 5α-reductase inhibitors: 3D-QSAR CoMFA, CoMSIA and docking studies,” Medicinal Chemistry Research, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 4568–4580, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Elahe A. Mostaghel, “Steroid hormone synthetic pathways in prostate cancer,” Translational Andrology and Urology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 212–227, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Dhevalapally B. Ramachary, Rajasekar Sakthidevi, and P. Srinivasa Reddy, “Direct organocatalytic stereoselective transfer hydrogenation of conjugated olefins of steroids,” RSC Advances, vol. 3, no. 32, pp. 13497, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Chi Chung Shek, Angel On Kei Chan, Wing Yee Tse, Ching Yin Lee, Kwok Leung Ng, Joanna Yuet Ling Tung, Almen Lai Na Lam, Pik To Cheung, Betty Wai Man But, Elaine Yin Wah Kwan, Yuk Kit Chan, Yuen Yu Lam, and Teresa Kam Chi Tsui, “Diagnosis of 5 alpha-Reductase 2 Deficiency: Is Measurement of Dihydrotestosterone Essential?,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 798–806, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Claudius Füllhase, and Roberto Soler, “5α-Reductase Inhibitors,” Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, pp. 90–99, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lina Zschockelt, Olga Amelkina, Marta J. Siemieniuch, Stefanie Koster, Katarina Jewgenow, and Beate C. Braun, “Corpora lutea of pregnant and pseudopregnant domestic cats reveal similar steroidogenic capacities during the luteal life span,” The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jonathan W Lowery, Jose M Amich, Alex Andonian, and Vicki Rosen, “N-linked glycosylation of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) enhances ligand binding.,” Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS, vol. 71, no. 16, pp. 3165–72, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Akhilesh Prajapati, Akshay Rao, Jhanvi Patel, Sharad Gupta, and Sarita Gupta, “A single low dose of cadmium exposure induces benign prostate hyperplasia like condition in rat: A novel benign prostate hyperplasia rodent model,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 239, no. 7, pp. 829–841, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ruchy Jain, Orawan Monthakantirat, Parkpoom Tengamnuay, and Wanchai De-Eknamkul, “Avicequinone C Isolated from Avicennia marina Exhibits 5 alpha-Reductase-Type 1 Inhibitory Activity Using an Androgenic Alopecia Relevant Cell-Based Assay System,” Molecules, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 6809–6821, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Patrick O. Richard, and Antonio Finelli, “5-Alpha reductase inhibitors in active surveillance,” Current Opinion in Urology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 324–328, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Kai Wang, Dong-Dong Fan, Song Jin, Nian-Zeng Xing, and Yi-Nong Niu, “Differential expression of 5-alpha reductase isozymes in the prostate and its clinical implications,” Asian Journal of Andrology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 274–279, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mario V. Tartagni, Hala Alrasheed, Gianluca R. Damiani, Monica Montagnani, Maria A. De Salvia, Giovanni De Pergola, Massimo Tartagni, and Giuseppe Loverro, “Intermittent Low-Dose Finasteride Administration Is Effective for Treatment of Hirsutism in Adolescent Girls: A Pilot Study,” Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sourik S. Ganguly, Xiaohong Li, and Cindy K. Miranti, “The Host Microenvironment Influences Prostate Cancer Invasion, Systemic Spread, Bone Colonization, and Osteoblastic Metastasis,” Frontiers in Oncology, vol. 4, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Daniel G. Donner, Belinda Beck, Andrew C. Bulmer, Alfred K. Lam, and Eugene F. Du Toit, “Improvements in Body Composition, Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Insulin Sensitivity with Trenbolone in Normogonadic Rats,” Steroids, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Elizabeth Yim, Katherine L. Baquerizo Nole, and Antonella Tosti, “5α-Reductase inhibitors in androgenetic alopecia,” Current Opinion in Endocrinology & Diabetes and Obesity, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 493–498, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ijeoma Okeigwe, and Wendy Kuohung, “5-Alpha reductase deficiency,” Current Opinion in Endocrinology & Diabetes and Obesity, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 483–487, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • B. Chávez, L. Ramos, R. García-Becerra, and F. Vilchis, “Hamster SRD5A3 Lacks Steroid 5α-Reductase Activity In Vitro,” Steroids, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Anthony W. Norman, and Helen L. Henrypp. 1–413, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Anna Buczkowska, Ewa Swiezewska, and Dirk J. Lefeber, “Genetic defects in dolichol metabolism,” Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ruchy Jain, and Wanchai De-Eknamkul, “Potential targets in the discovery of new hair growth promoters for androgenic alopecia,” Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 787–806, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Elahe A. Mostaghel, “Beyond T and DHT - Novel Steroid Derivatives Capable of Wild Type Androgen Receptor Activation,” International Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 602–613, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Adita Raja, Satoshi Hori, and James N. Armitage, “Hormonal manipulation of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic obstruction,” Indian Journal of Urology, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 189–193, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Abdulmaged M. Traish, Roberto Cosimo Melcangi, Marco Bortolato, Luis M. Garcia-Segura, and Michael Zitzmann, “Adverse effects of 5α-reductase inhibitors: What do we know, don’t know, and need to know?,” Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Diego Reginensi, Francisco Wandosell, Josep Samitier, Xavier Trepat, Xavier Navarro, José Antonio del Río, Patricia Carulla, Sara Nocentini, Oscar Seira, Xavier Serra-Picamal, Abel Torres-Espín, Andreu Matamoros-Angles, Rosalina Gavín, and María Teresa Moreno-Flores, “Increased migration of olfactory ensheathing cells secreting the Nogo receptor ectodomain over inhibitory substrates and lesioned spinal cord.,” Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS, vol. 72, no. 14, pp. 2719–37, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lina Zschockelt, Olga Amelkina, Stefanie Koster, Johanna Painer, Minami W. Okuyama, Rodrigo Serra, Astrid Vargas, Katarina Jewgenow, and Beate C. Braun, “Comparative analysis of intraluteal steroidogenic enzymes emphasises the functionality of fresh and persistent corpora lutea during pro- and metoestrus in the lynx,” The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lucilene Bernardi de Souza, Manon Paradis, Gustavo Zamberlam, Marie-Odile Benoit-Biancamano, and Christopher Price, “Identification of 5α-reductase isoenzymes in canine skin,” Veterinary Dermatology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Debarshi Kar Mahapatra, Sanjay Kumar Bharti, and Vivek Asati, “Anti-cancer chalcones: Structural and molecular target perspectives,” European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 98, pp. 69–114, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Franklin M. Chu, Oliver Sartor, Leonard Gomella, Todd Rudo, Matthew C. Somerville, Belinda Hereghty, and Michael J. Manyak, “A randomised, double-blind study comparing the addition of bicalutamide with or without dutasteride to GnRH analogue therapy in men with non-metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer,” European Journal of Cancer, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Debarshi Kar Mahapatra, Sanjay Kumar Bharti, and Vivek Asati, “Anti-cancer Chalcones: Structural and Molecular Target Perspectives,” European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Christine Anne Ganzer, Alan Roy Jacobs, and Farin Iqbal, “Persistent Sexual, Emotional, and Cognitive Impairment Post-Finasteride: A Survey of Men Reporting Symptoms,” American Journal Of Mens Health, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 222–228, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Michael R. Lee, Jana R. Loux-Turner, and Kenneth Oliveira, “Evaluation of the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride on reproduction and gonadal development in medaka, Oryzias latipes,” General and Comparative Endocrinology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Saveria Aquila, Daniela Montanaro, Carmela Guido, Marta Santoro, Ida Perrotta, Serena Gervasi, Francesca De Amicis, and Marilena Lanzino, “Human sperm molecular anatomy: the enzyme 5α-reductase (SRD5A) is present in the sperm and may be involved in the varicocele-related infertility,” Histochemistry and Cell Biology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sharon E. Lynn, Nicole Perfito, Daisy Guardado, and George E. Bentley, “Food, Stress, and Circulating Testosterone: Cue Integration by the Testes, not the Brain, in Male Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata),” General and Comparative Endocrinology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Francis Bergeron, Gabriel Nadeau, and Robert S. Viger, “GATA4 knockdown in MA-10 Leydig cells identifies multiple target genes in the steroidogenic pathway,” Reproduction, vol. 149, no. 3, pp. 245–257, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Craig Harlos, Grace Musto, Pascal Lambert, Rashid Ahmed, and Marshall W. Pitz, “Androgen Pathway Manipulation and Survival in Patients with Lung Cancer,” Hormones and Cancer, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Suresh Thareja, “Steroidal 5α-Reductase Inhibitors: A Comparative 3D-QSAR Study Review,” Chemical Reviews, pp. 150318095933003, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • John T. Isaacs, “Lessons Learned About Prostatic Transformation from the Age-Related Methylation of 5α-Reductase Type 2 Gene,” The American Journal of Pathology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Matthew P. Dent, Paul L. Carmichael, Kevin C. Jones, and Francis L. Martin, “Towards a non-animal risk assessment for anti-androgenic effects in humans,” Environment International, vol. 83, pp. 94–106, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Suresh Thareja, Tarun Rajpoot, and Sant K. Verma, “Generation of comparative pharmacophoric model for steroidal 5α-reductase I and II inhibitors: A 3D-QSAR study on 6-azasteroids,” Steroids, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • A. Rossi, A. Iorio, D. Di Nunno, M.C. Fortuna, V. Garelli, M. Carlesimo, S. Calvieri, and E. Mari, “Conditions simulating androgenetic alopecia,” Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Anthony W. Norman, and Helen L. Henry, “Androgens,” Hormones, pp. 255–273, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Udensi K. Udensi, and Paul B. Tchounwou, “Oxidative stress in prostate hyperplasia and carcinogenesis,” Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 35, no. 1, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Claudius Füllhase, and Marc P. Schneider, “5-Alpha-Reductase Inhibitors and Combination Therapy,” Urologic Clinics of North America, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 325–336, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Silvia Giatti, Roberto Cosimo Melcangi, and Marzia Pesaresi, “The other side of progestins: effects in the brain,” Journal of Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. R109–R126, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Satya Kurada, Gopal Veeraraghavan, Dharmesh Kaswala, Josh Hansen, David Cohen, Ciaran Kelly, and Daniel Leffler, “Low testosterone in non-responsive coeliac disease: A case series, case–control study with comparisons to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,” Digestive and Liver Disease, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • A. Robic, K. Feve, J. Riquet, and A. Prunier, “Transcript levels of genes implicated in steroidogenesis in the testes and fat tissue in relation with androstenone accumulation in fat of pubertal pigs,” Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Wiranpat Karnsomwan, Thanyada Rungrotmongkol, Wanchai De-Eknamkul, and Supakarn Chamni, “In silico structural prediction of human steroid 5α-reductase type II,” Medicinal Chemistry Research, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sonja Bissegger, and Valerie S. Langlois, “Androgens modulate gene expression and specific DNA methylation pattern of steroid 5α-reductases in the frog Silurana tropicalis,” General and Comparative Endocrinology, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Xuan Qin, Mingyao Liu, and Xin Wang, “New insights into the androgen biotransformation in prostate cancer: a regulatory network among androgen, androgen receptors and UGTs,” Pharmacological Research, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • J. Jesús Naveja, Francisco Cortés-Benítez, Eugene Bratoeff, and José L. Medina-Franco, “Activity landscape analysis of novel 5 $$\upalpha $$ α -reductase inhibitors,” Molecular Diversity, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mahder Seifu Manenda, Charles Jérémie Hamel, Loreleï Masselot-Jouberta, Marie-Ève Picard, and Rong Shi, “Androgen-Metabolizing Enzymes: A Structural Perspective,” The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Douglas J. Taatjes, and Jürgen Roth, “The Histochemistry and Cell Biology omnium-gatherum: the year 2015 in review,” Histochemistry and Cell Biology, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sean C. Skeldon, Erin M. Macdonald, Michael R. Law, Anjie Huang, J. Michael Paterson, Muhammad M. Mamdani, and David Juurlink, “The Cardiovascular Safety of Dutasteride,” The Journal of Urology, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • M. Rahimi, M. Ghanbari, Z. Fazeli, M. Rouzrokh, S. Omrani, R. Mirfakhraie, and M. D. Omrani, “Association of SRD5A2 gene mutations with risk of hypospadias in the Iranian population,” Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Adrián de Quintana-Sancho, and María Teresa Conde Calvo, “Nuevas tendencias en el uso de inhibidores de la 5α-reductasa,” Piel, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Francisco Cortés-Benítez, Marisa Cabeza, María Teresa Ramírez-Apan, Berenice Alvarez-Manrique, and Eugene Bratoeff, “Synthesis of 17β-N-arylcarbamoylandrost-4-en-3-one derivatives and their anti-proliferative effect on human androgen-sensitive LNCaP cell line,” European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 121, pp. 737–746, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ruchy Jain, Orawan Monthakantirat, Parkpoom Tengamnuay, and Wanchai De-Eknamkul, “Identification of a new plant extract for androgenic alopecia treatment using a non-radioactive human hair dermal papilla cell-based assay,” Bmc Complementary And Alternative Medicine, vol. 16, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Daniel G. Donner, Grace E. Elliott, Belinda R. Beck, Andrew C. Bulmer, Alfred K. Lam, John P. Headrick, and Eugene F. Du Toit, “Trenbolone Improves Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Myocardial Tolerance to Ischemia-Reperfusion in Male Rats With Testosterone-Deficient Metabolic S,” Endocrinology, vol. 157, no. 1, pp. 368–381, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marco Rocha, Karina Cardozo, M. Valdemir Carvalho, and Edileia Bagatin, “ADT-G as a promising biomarker for peripheral hyperandrogenism in adult female acne,” Dermato-Endocrinology, pp. 00–00, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Wentao Han, Wenqian Xie, Yan Zhang, Fengwei Zhang, Haolin Zhang, Yingying Han, Zhengrong Yuan, and Qiang Weng, “Seasonal Expression of P450c17 and 5α-reductase-2 in the Scented Gland of Male Muskrats ( Ondatra zibethicus ),” General and Comparative Endocrinology, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sergio Vano-Galvan, David Saceda-Corralo, Ana Rodrigues-Barata, and Pedro Jaen-Olasolo, “Mesotherapy with dutasteride in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia,” International Journal of Trichology, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 143–145, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Edwin D. Lephart, “Resveratrol, 4′ Acetoxy Resveratrol, R-equol, Racemic Equol or S-equol as Cosmeceuticals to Improve Dermal Health,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1193, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marika Cordaro, Daniela Impellizzeri, Rosalba Siracusa, Enrico Gugliandolo, Roberta Fusco, Antonino Inferrera, Emanuela Esposito, Rosanna Di Paola, and Salvatore Cuzzocrea, “Effects of a co-micronized composite containing palmitoylethanolamide and polydatin in an experimental model of benign prostatic hyperplasia,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jyotsana Singh, Ritesh Singh, Preeti Gupta, Smita Rai, Asha Ganesher, Preethi Badrinarayan, G. Narahari Sastry, Rituraj Konwar, and Gautam Panda, “Targeting progesterone metabolism in breast cancer with L-proline derived new 14-azasteroids,” Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Shimin Yuan, Lanlan Meng, Yanan Zhang, Chaofeng Tu, Juan Du, Wen Li, Ping Liang, Guangxiu Lu, and Yue-Qiu Tan, “Genotype-phenotype correlation and identification of two novel SRD5A2 mutations in 33 Chinese patients with hypospadias,” Steroids, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Leanna W. Mah, Yvonne Y. Chan, and Jennifer H. Yangpp. 27–43, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Antonella Scaglione, Linda Celeste Montemiglio, Giacomo Parisi, Italia Anna Asteriti, Renato Bruni, Gabriele Cerutti, Claudia Testi, Carmelinda Savino, Filippo Mancia, Patrizia Lavia, and Beatrice Vallone, “Subcellular localization of the five members of the human steroid 5α−reductase family,” Biochimie Open, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jukkarin Srivilai, Karma Rabgay, Nantaka Khorana, Neti Waranuch, Nitra Nuengchamnong, Wudtichai Wisuitiprot, Thipphawan Chuprajob, Chatchawan Changtam, Apichart Suksamrarn, Warinthorn Chavasiri, Nilubon Sornkaew, and Kornkanok Ingkaninan, “Anti-androgenic curcumin analogues as steroid 5-alpha reductase inhibitors,” Medicinal Chemistry Research, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Daniele Marcoccia, Marco Pellegrini, Marco Fiocchetti, Stefano Lorenzetti, and Maria Marino, “Food components and contaminants as (anti)androgenic molecules,” Genes & Nutrition, vol. 12, no. 1, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marzia Di Donato, Giovanni Galasso, Antimo Migliaccio, Gabriella Castoria, Gustavo Cernera, Pia Giovannelli, and Antonio Bilancio, “Recent advances on bisphenol-A and endocrine disruptor effects on human prostate cancer,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 457, pp. 35–42, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • H.-T. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, S.-R. Park, S.-Y. Ryu, and J.-Y. Jung, “NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 silencing aggravates hormone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in mice,” Andrologia, pp. e12906, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Kyungsu Kang, Lei Peng, Yu-Jin Jung, Joo Yeon Kim, Eun Ha Lee, Hee Ju Lee, Sang Min Kim, Sang Hyun Sung, Cheol-Ho Pan, and Yongsoo Choi, “High-throughput and direct measurement of androgen levels using turbulent flow chromatography liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (TFC-LC-TQMS) to discover chemicals that modulate dihydrotestosterone production in human prostate cancer cells,” Biotechnology Letters, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jessica Cervantes, Ariel E. Eber, Marina Perper, Vanessa M. Nascimento, Keyvan Nouri, and Jonette E. Keri, “The role of zinc in the treatment of acne: A review of the literature,” Dermatologic Therapy, pp. e12576, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • P. Sánchez, C. Serrano-Falcón, J. M. Torres, S. Serrano, and E. Ortega, “5α-Reductase isozymes and aromatase mRNA levels in plucked hair from young women with female pattern hair loss,” Archives of Dermatological Research, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Carmen J Zamora-Sánchez, Valeria Hansberg-Pastor, Ivan Salido-Guadarrama, Mauricio Rodríguez-Dorantes, and Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo, “Allopregnanolone promotes proliferation and differential gene expression in human glioblastoma cells,” Steroids, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Wiranpat Karnsomwan, Ponsawan Netcharoensirisuk, Thanyada Rungrotmongkol, Wanchai De-Eknamkul, and Supakarn Chamni, “Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Docking of Avicequinone C Analogues as Potential Steroid 5α-Reductase Inhibitors,” Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 253–260, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Pil Moon Kang, Young Jin Kim, Won Tae Seo, Su Hwan Kang, Taek Sang Kim, Bong Kwon Chun, Won Ik Seo, Jee-Yeong Jeong, and Jae Il Chung, “Correlation between 5-α reductase type 2 protein expression and methylation of 5-α reductase type 2 promotor gene of benign prostatic hyperplasia,” World Journal of Urology, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sabine Naessén, Gunnar Söderqvist, and Kjell Carlström, “So similar and so different: Circulating androgens and androgen origin in bulimic women,” The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Wesley R. Baas, Michael J. Butcher, Aye Lwin, Bradley Holland, Michelle Herberts, Joseph Clemons, Kristin Delfino, Stanley Althof, Tobias S. Kohler, and Kevin T McVary, “A Review of the FAERS Data on 5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitors: Implications for Post-Finasteride Syndrome,” Urology, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Malika Alimussina, Louise Ann Diver, Ruth McGowan, and Syed Faisal Ahmed, “Genetic testing of XY newborns with a suspected disorder of sex development,” Current Opinion in Pediatrics, pp. 1, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Andrea Avendaño, Irene Paradisi, Francisco Cammarata-Scalisi, and Michele Callea, “5-α-Reductase type 2 deficiency: is there a genotype-phenotype correlation? A review,” Hormones, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Carmen Zamora-Sánchez, Aylin del Moral-Morales, Ana Hernández-Vega, Valeria Hansberg-Pastor, Ivan Salido-Guadarrama, Mauricio Rodríguez-Dorantes, and Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo, “Allopregnanolone Alters the Gene Expression Profile of Human Glioblastoma Cells,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 864, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sonja Bissegger, Marco A. Pineda Castro, Viviane Yargeau, and Valerie S. Langlois, “Phthalates modulate steroid 5-reductase transcripts in the Western clawed frog embryo,” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, vol. 213, pp. 39–46, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Se-Ra Park, Da-Young Jung, Tae-Won Kim, Chul-Ho Lee, and Ju-Young Jung, “Growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible 45 beta (GADD45β) deletion suppresses testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia in mice,” Life Sciences, vol. 211, pp. 74–80, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Frank Kannenberg, Manfred Fobker, Erhard Schulte, Grzegorz Pierściński, Reinhard Kelsch, Michael Zitzmann, Jerzy-Roch Nofer, and Andreas N. Schüring, “The Simultaneous measurement of serum testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS),” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 476, pp. 15–24, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Michelle A A Wynn, Barry A Ball, Erin Legacki, Alan Conley, Shavahn Loux, John May, Alejandro Esteller-Vico, Scott Stanley, Kirsten Scoggin, Edward Squires, and Mats Troedsson, “Inhibition of 5α-reductase alters pregnane metabolism in the late pregnant mare,” Reproduction, vol. 155, no. 3, pp. 251–258, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jamal Shamsara, “Homology Modeling of 5-alpha-Reductase 2 Using Available Experimental Data,” Interdisciplinary Sciences: Computational Life Sciences, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sugantha Priya Elaiyapillai, Ravi Sankar Bhaskaran, Arunakaran Jagadeesan, Sathish Kumar Thangavelu, and Ilangovan Ramachandran, “Lactational exposure of polychlorinated biphenyls impair Leydig cellular steroidogenesis in F1 progeny rats,” Reproductive Toxicology, vol. 75, pp. 73–85, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marco A. Rocha, and Ediléia Bagatin, “Adult-onset acne: Prevalence, impact, and management challenges,” Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology, vol. 11, pp. 59–69, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar