Advances in Urology / 2012 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Human Sperm Cryopreservation: Update on Techniques, Effect on DNA Integrity, and Implications for ART

Table 1

Approaches to cryopreserve limited number of spermatozoa.

Cryopreservation techniquesAuthorsPrincipleMain advantagesMain disadvantages

Empty zona pellucidaBorini et al. [69]Storage of individual spermatozoa in animal or human empty zona pellucida.Avoid waste of time in screening to locate motile sperm; cryoprotectants can be added and removed without loss of spermatozoa sequestered in the zonaRisk of biological contamination
Cohen et al. [70]
Walmsley et al. [71]
Montag et al. [72]
Hsieh et al. [73]
Liu et al. [74]
Levi-Setti et al. [75]
Cesana et al. [76]
Hassa et al. [77]

MicrodropletsGil-Salom et al. [78]Storage of droplets of sperm/cryoprotectants mixture on the surface of dry ice and directly plunged into liquid nitrogenAvoid sperm loss through adherence to the vesselRisk of cross-contamination; shape and size of dishes make difficult to handle and store in conventional freezers and liquid nitrogen tanks
Sereni et al. [79]
Quintans et al. [80]
Bouamama et al. [81]

ICSI pipetteGvakharia et al. [82]Storage of spermatozoa in ICSI pipettesSterile, simple, and convenient systemNot practical for long-term storage; fragility of ICSI pipettes; risk of cross-contamination
Sohn et al. [83]

Volvox globator spheresJust et al. [84]Storage of sperm into spheres of Volvox globator Significant postthaw recovery of motile spermExposure to genetic material from the algae; constant source of algae

Alginate beadsHerrler et al. [85]Microencapsulation in alginate beadsInert nature of alginate beadsDecrease sperm motility with encapsulation

CryoloopNawroth et al. [86]Individual spermatozoa deposited directly on cryoprotectant film covering the nylon loop and immersed in liquid nitrogenExcellent vessel for vitrification; no additional preparationOpen system: risk of cross-contamination
Schuster et al. [87]
Isachenko et al. [42]
Isachenko et al. [42]
Desai et al. [88]
Desai et al. [89]

Agarose microspheresIsaev et al. [90]Storage of sperm loaded in agarose microspheresNonbiological carrierClinical value of this approach not evaluated

StrawsDesai et al. [91]Sperm/cryoprotectants loaded into the ministrawSterile, simple, and convenient systemNot ideal for severely impaired specimens; sperm loss due to adherence to the vessel
Isachenko et al. [92]
Koscinski et al. [93]