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Advances in Urology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 973820, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/973820
Review Article

Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen-Based Therapeutics

1Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College, 525 E. 68th Street, Box 403, New York, NY 10065, USA
2Department of Urology, Weill Cornell Medical College, 525 E. 68th Street, Box 403, New York, NY 10065, USA

Received 2 May 2011; Accepted 9 May 2011

Academic Editor: Maximilian Burger

Copyright © 2012 Naveed H. Akhtar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common noncutaneous malignancy affecting men in the US, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. While significant therapeutic advances have been made, available systemic therapeutic options are lacking. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a highly-restricted prostate cell-surface antigen that may be targeted. While initial anti-PSMA monoclonal antibodies were suboptimal, the development of monoclonal antibodies such as J591 which are highly specific for the external domain of PSMA has allowed targeting of viable, intact prostate cancer cells. Radiolabeled J591 has demonstrated accurate and selective tumor targeting, safety, and efficacy. Ongoing studies using anti-PSMA radioimmunotherapy with 177Lu-J591 seek to improve the therapeutic profile, select optimal candidates with biomarkers, combine with chemotherapy, and prevent or delay the onset of metastatic disease for men with biochemical relapse. Anti-PSMA monoclonal antibody-drug conjugates have also been developed with completed and ongoing early-phase clinical trials. As PSMA is a selective antigen that is highly overexpressed in prostate cancer, anti-PSMA-based immunotherapy has also been studied and utilized in clinical trials.