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Advances in Urology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 203854, 5 pages
Clinical Study

Is Metabolic Syndrome Truly a Risk Factor for Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms or Just an Epiphenomenon?

1Faculty of Medicine, Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas (PUC-Campinas), 13060-904 Campinas, SP, Brazil
2Paulínia Municipal Hospital, 13140-295 Paulínia, SP, Brazil
3Faculty of Medicine and Urology Division, University of Campinas (Unicamp), 13083-887 Campinas, SP, Brazil

Received 19 July 2013; Revised 6 December 2013; Accepted 7 December 2013; Published 23 January 2014

Academic Editor: M. Hammad Ather

Copyright © 2014 Marina Zamuner et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


To define whether the association of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and metabolic syndrome (MS) is real or simply an epiphenomenon, 490 male adults (mean age 58 ± 9 years) underwent International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), physical and prostate digital examinations, blood analysis, and urinary tract transabdominal ultrasound with prostate volume measurement. Mild, moderate, and severe LUTS were found in 350 (71.4%), 116 (23.7%), and 24 (4.9%) patients, respectively. MS was present in 198 (40.4%) patients, representing 37.4% (131 of 350) of those with mild LUTS, 46.5% (54 of 116) of those with moderate, and 54.1% (13 of 24) of those with severe. The odds ratio of MS having moderate or severe LUTS was 2.1. MS was more common in older age, higher body mass index, and larger prostate size. Moderate and severe LUTS were more frequent in older age, lower levels of high density cholesterol, and higher blood pressure. Older age and body mass index had significant relative risk for lower urinary tract symptoms and only age remained independent factor for LUTS on multivariate analysis. Our results suggest that the association of male LUTS, prostate volume, and MS might be coincidental and related to older age.