Autism Research and Treatment / 2014 / Article / Tab 2

Clinical Study

Minor Physical Anomalies in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Healthy Controls

Table 2

Comparison of MPA rates between the ASD and neurotypical control groups.

Minor Physical AnomaliesScoreMM/PVASD 


Head circumference PV
 1.5–2 SD123 (46)27 (50.9)
 >2 SD28 (16)2 (3.8)
Fine electric hairMM6.6 (2) 0.037*
 Hair soon awry112 (24)4 (7.5)
 Hair unmanageable21 (2)

Epicanthus (the point of union where
upper and lower lids join the nose)
 Partly covered18 (16)7 (13.2)
 Deeply covered21 (2)2 (3.8)
Intercanthal distance/hypertelorism
(approximate distance between tear ducts)
 Moderate 122 (44)19 (35.8)
 Extensive21 (2)1 (1.9)

Seating ears—bottom of ears in line withPV
 Area between mouth and nose18 (16)9 (17)
 Mouth (or lower)2
Adherent ear lobesMM
Lower edges of ears extend
 Moderate/Straight back toward rear of neck116 (32)14 (26.4)
 Extensive/Upward and back toward crown of head218 (36)14 (26.4)
Asymmetrical ears1PV10 (20)3 (5.7)
Malformed ears1MM5 (10)4 (7.5)

High/steepled palatePV
Roof of mouth:
 Flat and narrow at the top 112 (24)13 (24.5)
 Definitely steepled 23 (5.7)
Furrowed tongue (one with deep ridges)1MM7 (14)4 (7.5)

Curved fifth finger: MM5.5 (1)0.019a
 Moderately curved12 (4)10 (18.9)
 Extensively curved2
Single transverse palmar crease 1MM7 (14)78.0 (1)0.005*
Fifth-finger stubbing1MM1 (2)

Third toe:
 Equal in length to second1PV2 (4)
 Definitely longer than second2
Partial syndactylia of second and third toes1MM3 (5.7)
Big gap between first and second toes1PV36 (72)40 (75.5)

ASD: autism spectrum disorder; NC: neurotypical controls; MM: minor malformation; PV: phenogenetic variants; aHigher scores in controls; level of significance . Items are assessed according to descriptive anchor points (scored 0-1 or 0–2) depending on severity and “0” is defined as “no deviation”.

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