Table 2: Group differences in parenting behavior between the ASD and control group.

ControlASDMANCOVA: ASD versus control
()
M (SD)
()
M (SD)

General parenting behavior
 Positive Parenting4.02 (.40)3.86 (.41)3.55.062
 Autonomy Support4.23 (.38)4.00 (.40)2.38.126
 Rules and Structure 4.41 (.49)4.29 (.58)0.03.864
 Discipline3.26 (.42)2.93 (.51)13.22<.001
 Rewarding4.61 (.41)4.71 (.40)1.29.259
 Indulging2.19 (.56)2.61 (.66)2.31.132
 Supervision and Safety4.22 (.38)4.24 (.46)0.16.695
ASD-adapted parenting behavior
 Stimulating the Development3.96 (.38)3.63 (.55)5.11.026
 Adapting the Environment3.68 (.37)3.73 (.49)0.18.672

Medium effect size; small effect size.