Table 1: Studies included in review.

AuthorYearTitleSample size total (ASD)Average age in sample (years)Gait analysis methodMajor findings

Shetreat-Klein et al. [32]2014Abnormalities of joint mobility and gait in children with autism spectrum disorders76 (38)4.58Video AnalysisGait with wide base of support common in ASD

Weiss et al. [33]2013Gait analysis of teenagers and young adults diagnosed with autism and severe verbal communication disorders19 (9)19GAITRiteReduced stride length and increased stance time in ASD

Chester and Calhoun [34]2012Gait symmetry in children with autism36 (14)6.068-Cam ViconNo significant differences in mean temporospatial gait parameters

Nayate et al. [35]2012Differentiation of high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder based on neuromotor behaviour33 (11)12.75GAITRiteIncreased step width in ASD; visual cues increased stride length variability in ASD

Calhoun et al. [36]2011Gait patterns in children with autism34 (12)6.068-Cam ViconIncreased cadence, reduced peak ankle plantar flexion and hip flexion moments in ASD

Nobile et al. [37]2011Further evidence of complex motor dysfunction in drug naive children with autism using automatic motion analysis of gait32 (16)10.28ELITEIncreased step width, reduced ankle plantar flexion and knee flexion-extension at toe-off, and a reduced hip range of motion in ASD

Rinehart et al. (a) [28]2006Gait function in high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder: evidence for basal-ganglia and cerebellar involvement?30 (10)10.69Clinical Stride AnalyzerIncreased variability in stride length in ASD

Rinehart et al. (b) [38]2006Gait function in newly diagnosed children with autism: cerebellar and basal ganglia related motor disorder22 (11)5.79GAITRiteIncreased variability in stride length and stride time in ASD

Vernazza-Martin et al. [39]2005Goal directed locomotion and balance control in autistic children15 (9)5ELITEReduced step length in ASD

Ambrosini et al. [40]1998Motion analysis of patients with infantile autism8 (8)10.85 Cam ViconReduced stride length, increased step width, and reduced ground reaction forces during terminal stance in ASD

Vilensky et al. [41]1981Gait disturbances in patients with autistic behavior: a preliminary study41 (21)7.73Video AnalysisReduced stride length and increased stance time in ASD. Reduced ankle dorsiflexion and knee extension at initial contact and increased hip flexion at toe-off in ASD