Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Virology
Volume 2014, Article ID 301386, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/301386
Research Article

The Antiviral Effect of High-Molecular Weight Poly-Gamma-Glutamate against Newcastle Disease Virus on Murine Macrophage Cells

1College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Cavite State University, 4122 Cavite, Philippines
2College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Republic of Korea
3Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chittagong 4202, Bangladesh

Received 23 September 2014; Revised 29 November 2014; Accepted 30 November 2014; Published 30 December 2014

Academic Editor: Subhash Verma

Copyright © 2014 Melbourne Talactac et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. A. Mayo, “Virus taxonomy,” Archives of Virology, vol. 147, pp. 1071–1076, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. M. A. Mayo, “A summary of taxonomic changes recently approved by ICTV,” Archives of Virology, vol. 147, no. 8, pp. 1655–1663, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. J. Alexander, “Newcastle disease and other avian paramyxoviruses,” Revue Scientifique et Technique, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 443–462, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Office International des Epizooties, “Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vacc ines for Terrestrial Animals,” 2012, http://web.oie.int/eng/normes/MMANUAL/A_Index.htm.
  5. B. S. Seal, D. J. King, and H. S. Sellers, “The avian response to Newcastle disease virus,” Developmental and Comparative Immunology, vol. 24, no. 2-3, pp. 257–268, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Y.-J. Lee, H.-W. Sung, J.-G. Choi et al., “Protection of chickens from Newcastle disease with a recombinant baculovirus subunit vaccine expressing the fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase proteins,” Journal of Veterinary Science, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 301–308, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Kumar, B. Nayak, P. L. Collins, and S. K. Samal, “Evaluation of the newcastle disease virus f and hn proteins in protective immunity by using a recombinant avian paramyxovirus type 3 vector in chickens,” Journal of Virology, vol. 85, no. 13, pp. 6521–6534, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K. Yamanouchi, T. Barrett, and C. Ka, “New approaches to the development of virus vaccines for veterinary use,” Revue scientifique et technique, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 641–653, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. J. Alexander, “Newcastle disease,” British Poultry Science, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 5–22, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S.-R. Bae, C. Park, J.-C. Choi, H. Poo, C.-J. Kim, and M.-H. Sung, “Effects of ultra high molecular weight poly-γ-glutamic acid from Bacillus subtilis (chungkookjang) on corneal wound healing,” Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 803–808, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M.-H. Sung, C. Park, C.-J. Kim, H. Poo, K. Soda, and M. Ashiuchi, “Natural and edible biopolymer poly-γ-glutamic acid: synthesis, production, and applications,” Chemical Record, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 352–366, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. H. Poo, C. Park, M.-S. Kwak et al., “New biological functions and applications of high-molecular-mass poly-γ-glutamic acid,” Chemistry and Biodiversity, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1555–1562, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H.-J. Moon, J.-S. Lee, Y.-K. Choi et al., “Induction of type I interferon by high-molecular poly-γ-glutamate protects B6.A2G-Mx1 mice against influenza A virus,” Antiviral Research, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 98–102, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T.-Y. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, S.-W. Yoon et al., “Oral administration of poly-gamma-glutamate induces TLR4- and dendritic cell-dependent antitumor effect,” Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy, vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 1781–1794, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. Yoshikawa, N. Okada, A. Oda et al., “Nanoparticles built by self-assembly of amphiphilic γ-PGA can deliver antigens to antigen-presenting cells with high efficiency: a new tumor-vaccine carrier for eliciting effector T cells,” Vaccine, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 1303–1313, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. W. K. Tae, Y. L. Tae, C. B. Hyun et al., “Oral administration of high molecular mass poly-γ-glutamate induces NK cell-mediated antitumor immunity,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 179, no. 2, pp. 775–780, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. Puig-Saus, A. Gros, R. Alemany, and M. Cascalló, “Adenovirus i-leader truncation bioselected against cancer-associated fibroblasts to overcome tumor stromal barriers,” Molecular Therapy, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 54–62, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. M. Shin, J. H. Kwon, S. Lee et al., “Immunostimulatory effects of Cordyceps militaris on macrophages through enhanced production of cytokines via the activation of NFκB,” Immune Network, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 55–63, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. M. G. Wise, D. L. Suarez, B. S. Seal et al., “Development of a real-time reverse-transcription PCR for detection of Newcastle disease virus RNA in clinical samples,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 329–338, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. R. Reed, R. P. Leon, M. K. Hall, and K. L. Schwertfeger, “Interleukin-1beta and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 cooperate to induce cyclooxygenase-2 during early mammary tumourigenesis,” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 11, no. 2, article R21, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. H. Wilden, P. Fournier, R. Zawatzky, and V. Schirrmacher, “Expression of RIG-I, IRF3, IFN-β and IRF7 determines resistance or susceptibility of cells to infection by Newcastle Disease Virus,” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 971–982, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. L. Wadsworth and D. R. Koop, “Effects of the wine polyphenolics quercetin and resveratrol on pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 941–949, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. K. von Maltzan and S. B. Pruett, “ELISA assays and alcohol: Increasing carbon chain length can interfere with detection of cytokines,” Alcohol, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. E. M. Pålsson-McDermott and L. A. J. O'Neill, “Signal transduction by the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like receptor-4,” Immunology, vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 153–162, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Yamamoto, S. Sato, H. Hemmi et al., “TRAM is specifically involved in the Toll-like receptor 4-mediated MyD88-independent signaling pathway,” Nature Immunology, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 1144–1150, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Marijke Keestra and J. P. M. van Putten, “Unique properties of the chicken TLR4/MD-2 complex: selective lipopolysaccharide activation of the MyD88-dependent pathway,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 181, no. 6, pp. 4354–4362, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. H. Wilden, V. Schirrmacher, and P. Fournier, “Important role of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 in the interferon response of mouse macrophages upon infection by Newcastle disease virus,” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 493–504, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. J. Morales and D. J. Lenschow, “The antiviral activities of ISG15,” Journal of Molecular Biology, vol. 425, no. 24, pp. 4995–5008, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M.-S. Park, A. García-Sastre, J. F. Cros, C. F. Basler, and P. Palese, “Newcastle disease virus V protein is a determinant of host range restriction,” Journal of Virology, vol. 77, no. 17, pp. 9522–9532, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Sato, H. Suemori, N. Hata et al., “Distinct and essential roles of transcription factors IRF-3 and IRF-7 in response to viruses for IFN-α/β gene induction,” Immunity, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 539–548, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus