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Advances in Virology
Volume 2016, Article ID 2143024, 7 pages
Research Article

Molecular and Phylogenetic Analysis of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1: First Report in Iraqi Cattle

1College of Veterinary Medicine, Al-Fallujah University, Al-Anbar 31002, Iraq
2Iraqi Center for Cancer and Medical Genetic Research, Al-Mustansiriya University, Al-Qadisiyah, Baghdad 1001, Iraq
3College of Veterinary Medicine, Baghdad University, Baghdad 1001, Iraq

Received 29 December 2015; Revised 17 March 2016; Accepted 12 May 2016

Academic Editor: Subhash C. Verma

Copyright © 2016 Mohammed A. Hamad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study aimed to provide the first molecular characterization of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) in Iraq. BPV is a widely spread oncogenic virus in Iraqi cattle and is associated with the formation of both benign and malignant lesions, resulting in notable economic losses in dairy and beef cattle. In the current study, 140 cutaneous papilloma specimens were collected from cattle in central Iraq. These samples were submitted to histopathological examination, PCR, and sequencing analysis. The histopathology revealed that the main lesion type among the specimens was fibropapilloma. BPV-1 DNA was detected in 121 of the samples (86.42%) in Iraqi cattle as the main causative agent for the disease. A partial sequence for the E2, L2 genes, and complete sequence for the E5 gene were deposited in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of BPV-1 and showed that the origin of infection may be imported European cattle. Obtaining a complete E5 gene sequence enabled us to perform structural predictions. This study presents the first report of BPV-1 infection in the Iraqi cattle and contributes to extending the knowledge of the origin of the spread of this disease. The results of this study will aid in the development of appropriate control measures and therapeutic strategies.