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Advances in Virology
Volume 2017, Article ID 6807964, 16 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6807964
Review Article

Global Status of Porcine circovirus Type 2 and Its Associated Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa

1SAMRC Microbial Water Quality Monitoring Centre, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, Eastern Cape, South Africa
2Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, Eastern Cape, South Africa
3Academic and Research Division, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice, Eastern Cape, South Africa

Correspondence should be addressed to Kayode O. Afolabi; moc.liamg@ibalofaakniyaloedoyak

Received 16 November 2016; Revised 13 February 2017; Accepted 23 February 2017; Published 12 March 2017

Academic Editor: Trudy Morrison

Copyright © 2017 Kayode O. Afolabi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Globally, Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a recognized viral pathogen of great economic value in pig farming. It is the major cause of ravaging postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and many other disease syndromes generally regarded as Porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD) in Europe. PCV2 infections, specifically PMWS, had impacted huge economic loss on swine production at different regions of the world. It has been studied and reported at different parts of the globe including: North and South America, Europe, Asia, Oceania, Middle East, and the Caribbean. However, till date, this virus and its associated diseases have been grossly understudied in sub-Sahara African region and the entire continent at large. Two out of forty-nine, representing just about 4% of countries that make up sub-Sahara Africa presently, have limited records on reported cases and occurrence of the viral pathogen despite the ubiquitous nature of the virus. This review presents an overview of the discovery of Porcine circovirus and its associated diseases in global pig herds and emphasizes the latest trends in PCV2 vaccines and antiviral drugs development and the information gaps that exist on the occurrence of this important viral pathogen in swine herds of sub-Saharan Africa countries. This will serve as wake-up call for immediate and relevant actions by stakeholders in the region.