Research Article | Open Access
M. C. Prabhakara, B. Basavaraju, H. S. Bhojya Naik, "Co(III) and Ni(II) Complexes Containing Bioactive Ligands: Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Photocleavage Studies", Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications, vol. 2007, Article ID 036497, 7 pages, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1155/2007/36497
Co(III) and Ni(II) Complexes Containing Bioactive Ligands: Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Photocleavage Studies
DNA binding and photocleavage characteristics of a series of mixed ligand complexes of the type (where (III) or Ni(II), -bipryidine, qbdp = Quinolino[3,2-b]benzodiazepine, or 2 and or 2) have been investigated. The DNA binding property of the complexes with calf thymus DNA has been investigated by using absorption spectra, viscosity measurements, as well as thermal denaturation studies. Intrinsic binding constant () has been estimated under similar set of experimental conditions. Absorption spectral studies indicate that the Co(III) and Ni(II) complexes intercalate between the base pairs of the CT-DNA tightly with intrinsic DNA binding constant of and M-1 in Tris-HCl buffer containing 50 mM NaCl, respectively. The proposed DNA binding mode supports the large enhancement in the relative viscosity of DNA on binding to quinolo[3,2-b]benzodiazepine. The oxidative as well as photo-induced cleavage reactions were monitered by gel electrophoresis for both complexes. The photocleavage experiments showed that the cobalt(III) complex can cleave pUC19 DNA effectively in the absence of external additives as an effective inorganic nuclease.
- R. E. Holmlin, P. J. Dandliker, and J. K. Barton, “Charge transfer through the DNA base stack,” Angewandte Chemie (International Edition in English), vol. 36, no. 24, pp. 2714–2730, 1997.
- S. Arounaguiri, D. Eshwaramoorthy, A. Ashokkumar, A. Dattagupta, and B. G. Maiya, “Cobalt(III), nickel(II) and ruthenium(II) complexes of 1, 10-phenanthroline family of ligands: DNA binding and photocleavage studies,” Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences: Chemical Sciences, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 1–17, 2000.
- S. Leininger, B. Olenyuk, and P. J. Stang, “Self-assembly of discrete cyclic nanostructures mediated by transition metals,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 853–907, 2000.
- S. Feng and R. Xu, “New materials in hydrothermal synthesis,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 239–247, 2001.
- M. Yuan, Y. Li, and E. Wang et al., “Hydrothermal synthesis and crystal structure of a hybrid material based on and a highly reduced polyoxoanion,” Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions, no. 14, pp. 2916–2920, 2002.
- Y. Lu, E. Wang, and M. Yuan et al., “Hydrothermal synthesis and crystal structure of a layered vanadium phosphate with a directly coordinated organonitrogen ligand: ,” Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions, no. 15, pp. 3029–3031, 2002.
- E. Lamour, S. Routier, J.-L. Bernier, J.-P. Catteau, C. Bailly, and H. J. Vezin, “Oxidation of to , free radical production and DNA cleavage by hydroxy-salen-copper complexes. Isomeric effects studied by ESR and electrochemistry,” Journal of American Chemical Society, vol. 121, no. 9, pp. 1862–1869, 1999.
- A. K.-D. Mesmaeker, J.-P. Lecomte, and J. M. Kelly, “Photoreactions of metal complexes with DNA, especially those involving a primary photo-electron transfer,” in Electron Transfer II, vol. 177 of Topics in Current Chemistry, pp. 25–76, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1996.
- B. Norden, P. Lincoln, B. Akerman, and E. Tuite, “DNA interactions with substitution-inert transition metal ion complexes,” in Metal Ions in Biological Systems: Probing of Nucleic Acids by Metal Ion Complexes of Small Molecules, A. Sigel and H. Sigel, Eds., vol. 33, pp. 177–252, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 1996.
- D. S. Sigman, A. Mazumder, and D. M. Perrin, “Chemical nucleases,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 93, no. 6, pp. 2295–2316, 1993.
- T. Ghosh, B. G. Maiya, and A. Samanta et al., “Mixed-ligand complexes of ruthenium(II) containing new photoactive or electroactive ligands: synthesis, spectral characterization and DNA interactions,” Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 496–508, 2005.
- N. J. Turro, J. K. Barton, and D. A. Tomalia, “Molecular recognition and chemistry in restricted reaction spaces. Photophysics and photoinduced electron transfer on the surfaces of micelles, dendrimers, and DNA,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 332–340, 1991.
- F. Q. Liu, Q. X. Wang, K. Jiao, F. F. Jian, G. Y. Liu, and R. X. Li, “Synthesis, crystal structure, and DNA-binding properties of a new copper (II) complex containing mixed-ligands of -bipyridine and -methylbenzoate,” Inorganica Chimica Acta, vol. 359, no. 5, pp. 1524–1530, 2006.
- T. D. Tullis, Metal-DNA Chemistry, ACS Symposium Series no. 402, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA, 1989.
- J. K. Barton, “Metals and DNA: molecular left-handed complements,” Science, vol. 233, no. 4765, pp. 727–734, 1986.
- S. Arounaguiri and B. G. Maiya, “Dipyridophenazine complexes of cobalt(III) and nickel(II): DNA-binding and photocleavage studies,” Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 35, no. 14, pp. 4267–4270, 1996.
- S. Arounaguiri, A. Dattagupta, and B. G. Maiya, “Redox-activated luminescence and light-induced nuclease activity of a new mixed-ligand ruthenium(II) complex,” Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences: Chemical Sciences, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 155–158, 1997.
- S. Arounaguiri and B. G. Maiya, ““Electro-photo switch” and “molecular light switch” devices based on ruthenium(II) complexes of modified dipyridophenazine ligands: modulation of the photochemical function through ligand design,” Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 842–843, 1999.
- A. A. Vlček, “Preparation of complexes by controlled oxidative processes,” Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 1425–1427, 1967.
- C. M. Harris and E. D. McKenzie, “Nitrogenous chelate complexes of transition metals—III bis-chelate copmlexes of nickel(II) with 1.10-phenanthroline, -bipyridal and analogus ligands,” Journal of Inorganic Nuclear Chemistry, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 1047–1068, 1967.
- M. E. Reichmann, S. A. Rice, C. A. Thomas, and P. Doty, “A furhter examination of the molecular weight and size of deoxy pentose nucleic acid,” Journal of American Chemical Society, vol. 76, pp. 3047–3053, 1954.
- A. Wolfe, G. H. Shimer Jr., and T. Meehan, “Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons physically intercalate into duplex regions of denatured DNA,” Biochemistry, vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 6392–6396, 1987.
- A. Raja, V. Rajendiran, and P. U. Maheswari et al., “Copper(II) complexes of tridentate pyridylmethylethylenediamines: role of ligand steric hindrance on DNA binding and cleavage,” Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, vol. 99, no. 8, pp. 1717–1732, 2005.
- H. Zhang, C.-S. Liu, X.-H. Bu, and M. Yang, “Synthesis, crystal structure, cytotoxic activity and DNA-binding properties of the copper (II) and zinc (II) complexes with 1-[3-(2-pyridyl)pyrazol-1-ylmethyl]naphthalene,” Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 1119–1125, 2005.
- A. Frodl, D. Herebian, and W. S. Sheldrick, “Coligand tuning of the DNA binding properties of bioorgano-metallic (-arene)ruthenium(II) complexes of the type [(-arene)-Ru(amino acid) (dppz = dipyridophenazine), ,” Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions, no. 19, pp. 3664–3673, 2002.
- S. Satyanarayana, J. C. Dabrowiak, and J. B. Chaires, “Tris(phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) enantiomer interactions with DNA: mode and specificity of binding,” Biochemistry, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 2573–2584, 1993.
- S. Satyanarayana, J. C. Dabrowiak, and J. B. Chaires, “Neither - nor -tris(phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) binds to DNA by classical intercalation,” Biochemistry, vol. 31, no. 39, pp. 9319–9324, 1992.
- J. D. Spikes, “Photosensitization,” in The Science of Photobiology, K. C. Smith, Ed., pp. 87–112, Plenum, New York, NY, USA, 1977.
- P. C. Lee and M. A. Rodgers, “Laser flash photokinetic studies of rose bengal sensitized photodynamic interactions of nucleotides and DNA,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 79–86, 1986.
- A. U. Khan, “Singlet molecular oxygen. A new kind of oxygen,” Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 80, no. 20, pp. 2219–2228, 1976.
- S. K. Chatopadhyay, C. V. Kumar, and P. K. Das, “Laser flash photolytic determination of triplet yields via singlet oxygen generation,” Journal of Photochemistry, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 1984.
Copyright © 2007 M. C. Prabhakara et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.