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Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications
Volume 2012, Article ID 687291, 9 pages
Research Article

A Comparison of Epithelial Cells, Fibroblasts, and Osteoblasts in Dental Implant Titanium Topographies

1Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan
2School of Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
3Medical Device Development Division, Metal Industries Research & Development Centre, Kaohsiung 82151, Taiwan
4Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
5Laboratory of Fiber Application and Manufacturing, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan
6Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Material Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 40601, Taiwan
7Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, College of Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Road., Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan

Received 12 July 2011; Accepted 28 September 2011

Academic Editor: Ivano Bertini

Copyright © 2012 Fu-Yuan Teng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The major challenge for dental implants is achieving optimal esthetic appearance and a concept to fulfill this criterion is evaluated. The key to an esthetically pleasing appearance lies in the properly manage the soft tissue profile around dental implants. A novel implant restoration technique on the surface was proposed as a way to augment both soft- and hard-tissue profiles at potential implant sites. Different levels of roughness can be attained by sandblasting and acid etching, and a tetracalcium phosphate was used to supply the ions. In particular, the early stage attaching and repopulating abilities of bone cell osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1), fibroblasts (NIH 3T3), and epithelial cells (XB-2) were evaluated. The results showed that XB-2 cell adhesive qualities of a smooth surface were better than those of the roughened surfaces, the proliferative properties were reversed. The effects of roughness on the characteristics of 3T3 cells were opposite to the result for XB-2 cells. E1 proliferative ability did not differ with any statistical significance. These results suggest that a rougher surface which provided calcium and phosphate ions have the ability to enhance the proliferation of osteoblast and the inhibition of fibroblast growth that enhance implant success ratios.