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Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 135824, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/135824
Research Article

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles: Structural Features and In Vivo and In Vitro Therapeutic Effects against Helicobacter pylori Induced Gastritis

1Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100, Pakistan
2College of Pharmacy, Salman bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia
3Department of Physics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan
4Deanship of Scientific Research College of Engineering, King Saud University, P.O. Box 800, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
5Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
6Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan

Received 20 April 2014; Revised 16 June 2014; Accepted 16 June 2014; Published 6 August 2014

Academic Editor: Imre Sovago

Copyright © 2014 Muhammad Amin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This study evaluates in vivo and in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) efficacy of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) prepared via a cost-effective green chemistry route wherein Peganum harmala L. seeds extract was used as a reducing and capping agent. The structural features, as elucidated by surface plasmon resonance spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, revealed the Ag-NPs synthesized to be polydispersed in nature and spherical in shape with 5–40 nm size. A typical Ag-NPs suspension (S5), with size being 15 nm, when tested in vitro against forty-two local isolates and two reference strains, showed a considerable anti-H. pylori activity. In case of in vivo trial against H. pylori induced gastritis, after oral administration of 16 mg/kg body weight of S5 for seven days, a complete clearance was recorded in male albino rates. In comparative time-killing kinetics, S5 exhibited dose- and time-dependent anti-H. pylori activity that was almost similar to tetracycline and clarithromycin, less than amoxicillin, but higher than metronidazole. Furthermore, S5 was found to be an equally effective anti-H. pylori agent at low (≤4) and high pH with no drug resistance observed even up to 10 repeated exposures while a significant drug resistance was recorded for most of the standard drugs employed. The present results revealed the potential of the synthesized Ag-NPs as safer bactericidal agents for the treatment of H. pylori induced gastritis.