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Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications
Volume 2014, Article ID 626719, 18 pages
Review Article

Protonation Equilibria of Biologically Active Ligands in Mixed Aqueous Organic Solvents

1Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, Northern Border University, Rafha, Saudi Arabia
3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Islamic University, Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia
4Holding Company for Water and Waste Water, The Reference Laboratory for Drinking Water, Inorganic Laboratory, Cairo, Egypt

Received 11 May 2014; Accepted 16 July 2014; Published 14 August 2014

Academic Editor: Spyros P. Perlepes

Copyright © 2014 Ahmed A. El-Sherif et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The review is mainly concerned with the protonation equilibria of biologically active ligands like amino acids, peptides, DNA constituents, and amino acid esters in nonaqueous media. Equilibrium concentrations of proton-ligand formation as a function of pH were investigated. Also, thermodynamics associated with protonation equilibria were also discussed.