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Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications
Volume 2015, Article ID 267985, 12 pages
Research Article

SALMO and S3M: A Saliva Model and a Single Saliva Salt Model for Equilibrium Studies

1Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Messina, Viale F. Stagno d’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina, Italy
2Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 17, 90128 Palermo, Italy

Received 19 December 2014; Accepted 14 January 2015

Academic Editor: Guillermo Mendoza-Diaz

Copyright © 2015 Francesco Crea et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A model of synthetic saliva (SALMO, SALiva MOdel) is proposed for its use as standard medium in in vitro equilibrium and speciation studies of real saliva. The concentrations come out from the literature analysis of the composition of both real saliva and synthetic saliva. The chief interactions of main inorganic components of saliva, as well as urea and amino acids, are taken into account on the basis of a complex formation model, which also considers the dependence of the stability constants of these species on ionic strength and temperature. These last features allow the modelling of the speciation of saliva in different physiological conditions deriving from processes like dilution, pH, and temperature changes. To simplify equilibrium calculations, a plain approach is also proposed, in order to take into account all the interactions among the major components of saliva, by considering the inorganic components of saliva as a single 1 : 1 salt (MX), whose concentration is ( = analytical concentration of all the ions) and ion charge calculated as = ±1.163. The use of the Single Saliva Salt Model (S3M) considerably reduces the complexity of the systems to be investigated. In fact, only four species deriving from internal ionic medium interactions must be considered.