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Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 3837679, 9 pages
Research Article

Effects of Osseointegration by Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 on Titanium Implants In Vitro and In Vivo

1Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
2School of Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Prosthodontics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, No. 100 Tzyou 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
3Advanced Medical Devices and Composites Laboratory, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, College of Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan
4Metal Industries Research & Development Centre, 3F, No. 88 Luke 5th Road, Luzhu District, Kaohsiung 82151, Taiwan

Received 1 October 2015; Accepted 22 December 2015

Academic Editor: Imre Sovago

Copyright © 2016 Fu-Yuan Teng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study designed a biomimetic implant for reducing healing time and achieving early osseointegration to create an active surface. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a strong regulator protein in osteogenic pathways. Due to hardly maintaining BMP-2 biological function and specificity, BMP-2 efficient delivery on implant surfaces is the main challenge for the clinic application. In this study, a novel method for synthesizing functionalized silane film for superior modification with BMP-2 on titanium surfaces is proposed. Three groups were compared with and without BMP-2 on modified titanium surfaces in vitro and in vivo: mechanical grinding; electrochemical modification through potentiostatic anodization (ECH); and sandblasting, alkali heating, and etching (SMART). Cell tests indicated that the ECH and SMART groups with BMP-2 markedly promoted D1 cell activity and differentiation compared with the groups without BMP-2. Moreover, the SMART group with a BMP-2 surface markedly promoted early alkaline phosphatase expression in the D1 cells compared with the other surface groups. Compared with these groups in vivo, SMART silaning with BMP-2 showed superior bone quality and created contact areas between implant and surrounding bones. The SMART group with BMP-2 could promote cell mineralization in vitro and osseointegration in vivo, indicating potential clinical use.