Table 1: A summary of the potential therapeutic applications of CORMs.

CORMEffectRef.

Bacteria:
E. coliCORM-2Decreased viability of uropathogenic isolates and reduced colonization of human bladder epithelial cells[17]
Suppressed cell membrane respiration in the EC598 strain
PhotoCORM[18]
TryptoCORMReduces cell viability by > 99.9%[19]
N. gonorrhoeaeTryptoCORMReduces cell viability by > 99%[20]
H. pyloriCORM-2Reduced cell viability via inhibition of Ni-containing urease[21]
CORM-3
S. typhimuriumCORM-3Reduced growth and viability[22]
P. aeruginosaCORM-2CORM-2, -3, and -371 reduced bacterial O2 consumption and displayed bactericidal properties[23]
CORM-3
CORM-371CORM-A1 slowed bacterial growth (bacteriostatic)
CORM-A1
[MnBr2(CO)4]Varied reduction of cellular growth for a variety of strains[24]
Neurodifferentiation and neuroprotection:
NeurodifferentiationCORM-A1Improved neuronal differentiation and yield in NT2 cell line by promoting oxidative metabolism[25]
NeuroprotectionCORM-2Increased viability of neural stem cells and reduced number of apoptotic cells[26]
Lessened mitochondrial damage and improved neurological function of mice after induced cardiac arrest[27]
ALF186Prevented apoptosis in nerve cells simulating ischemic respiratory arrest by increasing cellular cGMP levels[28]
ALF492Protected mice against cerebral malaria[29]
Cochlear inflammationCORM-2Inhibited MCP-1/CCL2 upregulation, reducing oxidative stress and protecting against cochlear inflammation[30]
NeuroinflammationCORM-3Reduced inflammatory response in BV-2 microglial cells by reducing NO production[31]
Suppresses interleukin-1β-induced inflammatory responses[32]
Nociception and diabetes:
Neuropathic painCORM-2Attenuated mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia, and thermal allodynia when used in combination with the antinociceptive JWH-015[33]
Reduced sciatic nerve injury-induced mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity by attenuating spinal microglial activation and expression of NOS1/2 and CD11b/c proteins[34]
DiabetesCORM-A1Facilitated beta cell regeneration by reducing T-helper cell counts and TGF-β and Ki-67 expression[35]
Inflammatory disease:
ColitisCORM-2Reduced cell survival of colitis-inducing cells[36]
CO-HbVReduced tissue damage and prolonged survival of mice with induced colitis[37]
Bacterial LPS-induced inflammationCORM-2Prevented LPS-mediated inflammation by reducing TLR4/MD2 expression on dendritic cell surfaces and protected mice against increased neutrophil counts associated with septic inflammation[38]
Tumour necrosis factor α-induced inflammationCORM-2Induced p65 glutathionylation which protects cysteinyl residues from irreversible oxidation[39]
Inflammatory disease (cont.):
Inflammation-induced blood clottingCORM-2Decreased blood clotting in human umbilical vein endothelial cells by suppressing MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways[40]
UveitisCORM-A1Improved retina morphology and expression of IFNgamma and IL-17A was lowered and IL-10 raised in uveitis-induced mice[41]
Chronic inflammatory painCORM-2Reduced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in mice and diminished upregulation of NOS1 expression[42]
Intestinal barrier functionCORM-2Improved barrier function of intestinal epithelial cells by suppressing phosphorylation of the myosin light chain[43]
Periodontal diseaseCORM-3Inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB and reduced DNA binding of p65/p50 subunits[44]
Vascular inflammationCORM-3Inhibited neutrophilic myeloperoxidase activity[45]
Sepsis and associated conditions:
Oxidative stressCORM-2Reduced oxidative stress during sepsis by increasing HO-1 expression[46]
NO-induced lipid peroxidationCORM-2Attenuated inducible NO synthase and NO production[46]
CLP-induced sepsisCORM-2Improved morphology of intestinal mucosa during sepsis, protecting against LPS-induced intestinal damage[47]
Reduced mortality of mice with sepsis-induced acute kidney injury by reducing biomarkers[48]
Septic lung injuryCORM-3Restored downregulated annexin A2 levels to normal in LPS-induced lung sepsis[49]
Myocardial dysfunctionCORM-3Improved myocardial function in cardiac fibroblasts of septic mice by inhibiting activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome[50]
Abnormal platelet coagulationCORM-2Abnormal platelet activation was reduced by inhibition of glycoprotein-mediated HS1 phosphorylation[51]
HyperglycemiaCORM-2Suppression of hepatic glucose metabolism in mice[52]
Recruitment of PMN leukocytesCORM-3Reduced leukocyte infiltration and attenuated several (but not all) proteins expressed during sepsis[53]
Obesity:
Dietary-inducedCORM-A1Reduced weight gain, aided weight loss, and increased lean body mass in mice receiving a high-fat diet[54]
CORM-2Reduced leptin resistance and led to lower body weight of animals fed high-fat diet[55]
HyperglycemiaCORM-A1Decreased hyperglycemia and reduced plasma insulin levels[54]
Angiogenesis, aggregation, and cancer:
AngiogenesisCORM-2Prevented endothelial cell migration and proliferation induced by vascular endothelial growth factor and suppressed phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein, halting extreme cell replication[56]
CancerCORM-401Promoted vasorelaxation of precontracted aortic rings[57]
CORM-2Increased survival of mice with A20 lymphoma tumours when encapsulated by folic acid-tagged protein nanoemulsions[58]
Prevented global protein synthesis in pancreatic stellate cells[59]
PhotoCORMReduced cell biomass upon irradiation at 365 nm[60]
Cell aggregationCORM-2Decreased binding affinity of a integrin-specific ligand and lead to reduced cellular aggregation[61]
Hemorrhagic shock and postresuscitation injuries:
Hemorrhagic shockCORM-A1Maintained levels of fenestrations, cells, and adherent leukocytes by reducing expression of cytokines[62]
CORM-3Increased frequency of live human umbilical vein endothelial cells; reduced apoptosis and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential and reduced tissue necrosis[63]
Postresuscitation myocardial injuryCORM-2Reduced myocytolysis and damage from myocardial fibers and decreased cardiac mitochondrial ROS[64]
Hypoxia reoxygenationCORM-3Conserved cell viability[65]
Cardiac transplantationCORM-3Prolonged survival of rats after heart transplantation[65]
Improved coronary flow in mice following heart transplantation[66]
Kidney transplantationCORM-2Pretreating donor rats improved renal histology and function in recipients and long term treatment, however, produced excess lymphocyte accumulation and glomerulus atrophy[67]
CORM-3
Gastric, intestinal, kidney, and liver disorders:
Gastric disorderCORM-2Reduced formation of mucosal lesions caused by alendronate (osteoclast inhibitor) in rats stressed by water immersion[68]
Liver injuryCORM-A1Reduced hepatocyte cell death by decreasing CK18 cleavage products and lowering RIP3 expression[69]
HepatitisCORM-A1Significantly reduced deaths in a murine model of autoimmune hepatitis[70]
NephrotoxicityCORM-3Reduced cell damage induced by cisplatin in renal epithelial cells by suppressing caspase-3 activity and prevented apoptosis and kidney mass loss[71]
RenoprotectionCORM-3Increased viability of normal and cancerous human renal cells that were subjected to cisplatin-induced toxicity and ischemia-reperfusion injury[72]
Intestinal disorderCORM-3Partially restored intestinal contractility in mice presenting postoperative ileus and reduced oxidative stress levels[73]
Lungs:
Pulmonary hypertensionCORM-3Prevented ventricular hypertrophy and distal pulmonary artery muscularization in hypoxia-induced mice[74]
Resulted in irreversible pulmonary vasoconstriction in an in vitro hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction model[75]
Ocular system:
Intraocular pressureCORM-3Lowered intraocular pressure in rabbits[76]
Cardiovascular effects:
Cardioprotection/toxicityCORM-2Decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by DXR (antitumor agent) in a narrow therapeutic window[77]
Attenuated angiotensin II-induced aortic smooth muscle cell migration by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and ROS/interleukin-6 generation[78]
CORM-3Improved recovery of cardiac structure and function following myocardial infarction in rats[79]
Pro- and anticoagulant effects:
ProcoagulationCORM-2Increased strength and velocity of clot formation[8082]
Attenuates snake venom with fibrinogenolytic and thrombin-like activity[8386]
AnticoagulationCORM-2Reduced platelet aggregation in aortic allograft recipient mice[87]
CORM-3Decreased arterial thrombus formation[88]
CORM-A1