Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. X-Ray Crystallographic Analysis, EPR Studies, and Computational Calculations of a Cu(II) Tetramic Acid Complex Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 In this work we present a structural and spectroscopic analysis of a copper(II) N-acetyl-5-arylidene tetramic acid by using both experimental and computational techniques. The crystal structure of the Cu(II) complex was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction and shows that the copper ion lies on a centre of symmetry, with each ligand ion coordinated to two copper ions, forming a 2D sheet. Moreover, the EPR spectroscopic properties of the Cu(II) tetramic acid complex were also explored and discussed. Finally, a computational approach was performed in order to obtain a detailed and precise insight of product structures and properties. It is hoped that this study can enrich the field of functional supramolecular systems, giving place to the formation of coordination-driven self-assembly architectures. Dimitrios Matiadis, Dimitrios Tsironis, Valentina Stefanou, Olga Igglessi–Markopoulou, Vickie McKee, Yiannis Sanakis, Katerina N. Lazarou, Athanassios Chrissanthopoulos, Spyros N. Yannopoulos, and John M. Markopoulos Copyright © 2017 Dimitrios Matiadis et al. All rights reserved. Syntheses, Characterization, Resolution, and Biological Studies of Coordination Compounds of Aspartic Acid and Glycine Wed, 15 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Enantiomerically enriched coordination compounds of aspartic acid and racemic mixtures of coordination compounds of glycine metal-ligand ratio 1 : 3 were synthesized and characterized using infrared and UV-Vis spectrophotometric techniques and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Five of the complexes were resolved using (+)-cis-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) chloride, (+)-bis(glycinato)(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt(III) chloride, and (+)-tris(1,10-phenanthroline)nickel(II) chloride as resolving agents. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of these complexes were then determined. The results obtained indicated that aspartic acid and glycine coordinated in a bidentate fashion. The enantiomeric purity of the compounds was in the range of 22.10–32.10%, with (+)-cis-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) complex as the more efficient resolving agent. The resolved complexes exhibited better activity in some cases compared to the parent complexes for both biological activities. It was therefore inferred that although the increase in the lipophilicity of the complexes may assist in the permeability of the complexes through the cell membrane of the pathogens, the enantiomeric purity of the complexes is also of importance in their activity as antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. Temitayo Aiyelabola, Ezekiel Akinkunmi, Isaac Ojo, Efere Obuotor, Clement Adebajo, and David Isabirye Copyright © 2017 Temitayo Aiyelabola et al. All rights reserved. Antimicrobial Properties of Copper Nanoparticles and Amino Acid Chelated Copper Nanoparticles Produced by Using a Soya Extract Mon, 13 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 This paper reports a comparison of the antibacterial properties of copper-amino acids chelates and copper nanoparticles against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. These copper-amino acids chelates were synthesized by using a soybean aqueous extract and copper nanoparticles were produced using as a starting material the copper-amino acids chelates species. The antibacterial activity of the samples was evaluated by using the standard microdilution method (CLSI M100-S25 January 2015). In the antibacterial activity assays copper ions and copper-EDTA chelates were included as references, so that copper-amino acids chelates can be particularly suitable for acting as an antibacterial agent, so they are excellent candidates for specific applications. Additionally, to confirm the antimicrobial mechanism on bacterial cells, MTT assay (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was carried out. A significant enhanced antimicrobial activity and a specific strain were found for copper chelates over E. faecalis. Its results would eventually lead to better utilization of copper-amino acids chelate for specific application where copper nanoparticles can be not used. I. DeAlba-Montero, Jesús Guajardo-Pacheco, Elpidio Morales-Sánchez, Rene Araujo-Martínez, G. M. Loredo-Becerra, Gabriel-Alejandro Martínez-Castañón, Facundo Ruiz, and M. E. Compeán Jasso Copyright © 2017 I. DeAlba-Montero et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis Characterization and Biological Activities of Coordination Compounds of 4-Hydroxy-3-nitro-2H-chromen-2-one and Its Aminoethanoic Acid and Pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic Acid Mixed Ligand Complexes Tue, 07 Feb 2017 08:21:34 +0000 Coordination compounds of 4-hydroxy-3-nitro-2H-chromen-2-one and their mixed ligand complexes with aminoethanoic acid and pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid were synthesized by the reaction of Cu(II) and Zn(II) salts in molar ratio 1 : 2 for the coumarin complexes and 1 : 1 : 1 for the mixed ligand complexes, in basic media. The compounds formed were characterized using infrared, Uv-vis spectrophotometric analyses, mass spectrometry, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and EDX analyses. It was concluded that 4-hydroxy-3-nitro-2H-chromen-2-one coordinated as a monobasic ligand for all the complexes; it also coordinated via the carbonyl moiety in the case of the Cu(II) mixed ligand complexes. Similarly it was proposed that the amino acids also coordinated in a bidentate fashion via their amino nitrogen and carboxylate oxygen atoms. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. The complexes exhibited marginal antimicrobial activity but good cytotoxic activity. Temitayo Aiyelabola, Ezekiel Akinkunmi, Efere Obuotor, Idowu Olawuni, David Isabirye, and Johan Jordaan Copyright © 2017 Temitayo Aiyelabola et al. All rights reserved. Physicochemical Properties of Epoxy Resin-Based and Bioceramic-Based Root Canal Sealers Sun, 22 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Three bioceramic sealers (EndoSequence BC sealer, EndoSeal MTA, and MTA Fillapex) and three epoxy resin-based sealers (AH-Plus, AD Seal, and Radic-Sealer) were tested to evaluate the physicochemical properties: flow, final setting time, radiopacity, dimensional stability, and pH change. The one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test were used to analyze the data (). The MTA Fillapex sealer had a highest flow and the BC Sealer presented a flow significantly lower than the others (). The BC Sealer and MTA Fillapex samples were not set in humid incubator condition even after one month. EndoSeal MTA had the longest setting time among the measurable materials and Radic-Sealer and AD Seal showed shorter setting time than the AH-Plus (). AH-Plus and EndoSeal MTA showed statistically higher values and MTA Fillapex showed statistically lower radiopacity (). BC Sealer showed the highest alkaline pH in all evaluation periods. Set samples of 3 epoxy resin-based sealers and EndoSeal MTA presented a significant increase of pH over experimental time for 4 weeks. In conclusion, the bioceramic sealer and epoxy resin-based sealers showed clinical acceptable physicochemical properties, but BC Sealer and MTA Fillapex were not set completely. Ju Kyung Lee, Sang Won Kwak, Jung-Hong Ha, WooCheol Lee, and Hyeon-Cheol Kim Copyright © 2017 Ju Kyung Lee et al. All rights reserved. Establishment of a Method for Measuring Antioxidant Capacity in Urine, Based on Oxidation Reduction Potential and Redox Couple I2/KI Tue, 27 Dec 2016 08:55:07 +0000 Objectives. To establish a new method for determination of antioxidant capacity of human urine based on the redox couple I2/KI and to evaluate the redox status of healthy and diseased individuals. Methods. The method was based on the linear relationship between oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and logarithm of concentration ratio of I2/KI. ORP of a solution with a known concentration ratio of I2/KI will change when reacted with urine. To determine the accuracy of the method, both vitamin C and urine were reacted separately with I2/KI solution. The new method was compared with the traditional method of iodine titration and then used to measure the antioxidant capacity of urine samples from 30 diabetic patients and 30 healthy subjects. Results. A linear relationship was found between logarithm of concentration ratio of I2/KI and ORP (). Both vitamin C and urine concentration showed a linear relationship with ORP ( and 0.986, resp.). The precision of the method was in the acceptable range and results of two methods had a linear correlation (). Differences in ORP values between diabetic group and control group were statistically significant (). Conclusions. A new method for measuring the antioxidant capacity of clinical urine has been established. Tinghui Cao, Min He, Tianyu Bai, and Hui Liu Copyright © 2016 Tinghui Cao et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Metals in the Reaction Catalyzed by Metal-Ion-Independent Bacillary RNase Wed, 21 Dec 2016 06:49:27 +0000 Extracellular enzymes of intestinal microbiota are the key agents that affect functional activity of the body as they directly interact with epithelial and immune cells. Several species of the Bacillus genus, like Bacillus pumilus, a common producer of extracellular RNase binase, can populate the intestinal microbiome as a colonizing organism. Without involving metal ions as cofactors, binase depolymerizes RNA by cleaving the 3′,5′-phosphodiester bond and generates 2′,3′-cyclic guanosine phosphates in the first stage of a catalytic reaction. Maintained in the reaction mixture for more than one hour, such messengers can affect the human intestinal microflora and the human body. In the present study, we found that the rate of 2′,3′-cGMP was growing in the presence of transition metals that stabilized the RNA structure. At the same time, transition metal ions only marginally reduced the amount of 2′,3′-cGMP, blocking binase recognition sites of guanine at N7 of nucleophilic purine bases. Yulia Sokurenko, Vera Ulyanova, Pavel Zelenikhin, Alexey Kolpakov, Dmitriy Blokhin, Dieter Müller, Vladimir Klochkov, and Olga Ilinskaya Copyright © 2016 Yulia Sokurenko et al. All rights reserved. In Vivo Radionuclide Generators for Diagnostics and Therapy Mon, 12 Dec 2016 14:27:58 +0000 In vivo radionuclide generators make complex combinations of physical and chemical properties available for medical diagnostics and therapy. Perhaps the best-known in vivo generator is 212Pb/212Bi, which takes advantage of the extended half-life of 212Pb to execute a targeted delivery of the therapeutic short-lived α-emitter 212Bi. Often, as in the case of 81Rb/81Kr, chemical changes resulting from the transmutation of the parent are relied upon for diagnostic value. In other instances such as with extended alpha decay chains, chemical changes may lead to unwanted consequences. This article reviews some common and not-so-common in vivo generators with the purpose of understanding their value in medicine and medical research. This is currently relevant in light of a recent push for alpha emitters in targeted therapies, which often come with extended decay chains. Patricia E. Edem, Jesper Fonslet, Andreas Kjær, Matthias Herth, and Gregory Severin Copyright © 2016 Patricia E. Edem et al. All rights reserved. Fracture Resistance of K3 Nickel-Titanium Files Made from Different Thermal Treatments Mon, 14 Nov 2016 12:17:41 +0000 The purpose of this study was to compare fracture resistances of K3 nickel-titanium files made from different thermal treatments. K3 (SybronEndo, Orange, CA), K3XF (SybronEndo), and experimentally heat treated K3 (K3H) were used. For the cyclic fatigue test, the samples were rotated with up-and-down motion in the artificial canal with the curvature of 60 degrees until the fracture occurred. The number of cycles to fracture (NCF) was measured. For the torsional fracture test, the samples were tightly bound and rotated until the fracture occurred. Elastic modulus (EM), ultimate torsional strength (UTS), and angle of rotation to fracture (ARF) were measured. The results were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA. The NCF of K3H was higher than those of K3 and K3XF (). The EM of K3XF and K3H was lower than that of K3 (). There was no significant difference in UTS. The ARF of K3XF was higher than that of K3 (). K3XF and K3H showed more flexibility than K3. The maximum torsional angle of K3XF was higher than that of K3, but there was no significant difference on the UTS in all three groups. JinWook Choi, Soram Oh, Yu-Chan Kim, Kwang-Koo Jee, KeeYeon Kum, and SeokWoo Chang Copyright © 2016 JinWook Choi et al. All rights reserved. Facile Synthesis, Characterization, and Cytotoxic Activity of Europium-Doped Nanohydroxyapatite Mon, 14 Nov 2016 06:52:47 +0000 The objective of this study was to synthetize europium-doped nanohydroxyapatite using a simple aqueous precipitation method and, thereafter, characterize and impregnate selected samples with 5-fluorouracil in order to explore the properties and the releasing capacity of this material. The nanohydroxyapatite was doped with 3, 5, 10, and 20 wt% of europium. The obtained samples were characterized after they were dried at 80°C and hydrothermal treated at 120°C by 2 hours. The samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. Also, impregnation and release of 5-fluorouracil were assessed in PBS. The toxicity effects of all samples were studied using viability assays on human fibroblasts cells (HGF-1) in vitro. The sizes of the crystallites were about 10–70 nm with irregular morphology and present the phase corresponding to the JCPDS card 9–0432 for hydroxyapatite. The results of the toxicity experiments indicated that doped and undoped powders are biocompatible with fibroblasts cells. Hydroxyapatite samples doped with 5% of europium and loaded with 5-fluorouracil release almost 7 mg/L of the drug after 60 minutes in PBS and decrease the viability of HeLa cells after 24 hours. Paulina-Guadalupe Miranda-Meléndez, Gabriel-Alejandro Martínez-Castañón, Nereyda Niño-Martínez, Nuria Patiño-Marín, Miguel-Ángel Casillas-Santana, Brenda-Erendida Castillo-Silva, and Facundo Ruiz Copyright © 2016 Paulina-Guadalupe Miranda-Meléndez et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Studies of a Piperidinyl Appended Dipicolylamine Ligand and Its Rhenium Tricarbonyl Complex as Potential Therapeutic Agents for Human Breast Cancer Tue, 25 Oct 2016 11:14:40 +0000 A novel ligand bearing a central piperidinyl sulfonamide group, N(SO2pip)dpa, and its corresponding Re tricarbonyl complex, [Re(CO)3(N(SO2pip)dpa)]+, have been synthesized in good yield. The methylene CH2 signal seen as a singlet (4.54 ppm) in a 1H NMR spectrum of the ligand in DMSO- appears as two doublets (5.39, 5.01 ppm) in a spectrum of the [Re(CO)3(N(SO2pip)dpa)]+ complex and confirms the presence of magnetically nonequivalent protons upon coordination to Re. Structural results revealed that the Re–N bond lengths fall within the normal range establishing coordination of ligand to metal. The presence of intraligand and transitions is indicated by the absorption peaks around 200–250 nm in UV-visible spectra. Absorption peaks in UV-visible spectra around 300 nm for metal complexes were identified as MLCT transitions. The S–N stretch observed as a strong peak at 923 cm−1 for N(SO2pip)dpa appeared at a shorter frequency, at 830 cm−1 in an FTIR spectrum of the [Re(CO)3(N(SO2pip)dpa)]+. The intense fluorescence displayed by the N(SO2pip)dpa ligand has quenched upon coordination to Re. Relatively low IC50 values given by human breast cancer cells, MCF-7, (N(SO2pip)dpa = 139 μM, [Re(CO)3(N(SO2pip)dpa)]+ = 360 μM) indicate that N(SO2pip)dpa and [Re(CO)3(N(SO2pip)dpa)]+ are promising novel compounds that can be further investigated on their usage as potential anticancer agents. Amali Subasinghe, Inoka C. Perera, Svetlana Pakhomova, and Theshini Perera Copyright © 2016 Amali Subasinghe et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Assessment of Antibacterial Activities of Ruthenium(III) Mixed Ligand Complexes Containing 1,10-Phenanthroline and Guanide Wed, 19 Oct 2016 13:07:47 +0000 In this work, two complexes of ruthenium(III) ([Ru(phen)2Cl2]Cl·2H2O and [Ru(phen)2(G)Cl]2Cl·H2O) were synthesized from 1,10-phenanthroline alone as well as from both 1,10-phenanthroline and guanide. The synthesis was checked using halide test, conductance measurement, and spectroscopic (ICP-OES, FTIR, and UV/Vis) analysis. Their in vitro antibacterial activities were also investigated on two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae)) bacteria. These complexes showed wide-range better activities than the commercially available controls (Chloramphenicol and Ciprofloxacin) against even the most drug resistant K. pneumoniae. [Ru(phen)2(G)Cl]2Cl·H2O inhibited S. aureus, MRSA, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae by 17.5%, 27.4%, 16%, and 52%, respectively, better than Chloramphenicol. It also inhibited these pathogens by 5.9%, 5.1%, 2.3%, and 17.2%, respectively, better than Ciprofloxacin. Similarly, [Ru(Phen)2(Cl)2]Cl·2H2O inhibited these pathogens by 11%, 8.7%, 0.1%, and 31.2%, respectively, better than Chloramphenicol. Therefore, after in vivo cytotoxicity investigations, these compounds can be considered as potential antibiotic drugs. Atakilt Abebe and Tizazu Hailemariam Copyright © 2016 Atakilt Abebe and Tizazu Hailemariam. All rights reserved. Gamma Radiation-Induced Damage in the Zinc Finger of the Transcription Factor IIIA Mon, 10 Oct 2016 14:51:49 +0000 A zinc finger motif is an element of proteins that can specifically recognize and bind to DNA. Because they contain multiple cysteine residues, zinc finger motifs possess redox properties. Ionizing radiation generates a variety of free radicals in organisms. Zinc finger motifs, therefore, may be a target of ionizing radiation. The effect of gamma radiation on the zinc finger motifs in transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA), a zinc finger protein, was investigated. TFIIIA was exposed to different gamma doses from 60Co sources. The dose rates were 0.20 Gy/min and 800 Gy/h, respectively. The binding capacity of zinc finger motifs in TFIIIA was determined using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. We found that 1000 Gy of gamma radiation impaired the function of the zinc finger motifs in TFIIIA. The sites of radiation-induced damage in the zinc finger were the thiol groups of cysteine residues and zinc (II) ions. The thiol groups were oxidized to form disulfide bonds and the zinc (II) ions were indicated to be reduced to zinc atoms. These results indicate that the zinc finger motif is a target domain for gamma radiation, which may decrease 5S rRNA expression via impairment of the zinc finger motifs in TFIIIA. XiaoHong Zhang, YuJi Miao, XiaoDan Hu, Rui Min, PeiDang Liu, and HaiQian Zhang Copyright © 2016 XiaoHong Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Structural and Antioxidant Properties of Compounds Obtained from Fe2+ Chelation by Juglone and Two of Its Derivatives: DFT, QTAIM, and NBO Studies Wed, 28 Sep 2016 13:19:13 +0000 The chelating ability of juglone and two of its derivatives towards Fe2+ ion and the antioxidant activity (AOA) of the resulting chelates and complexes (in the presence of H2O and CH3OH as ligands) in gas phase is reported via bond dissociation enthalpy, ionization potential, proton dissociation enthalpy, proton affinity, and electron transfer enthalpy. The DFT/B3LYP level of theory associated with the 6-31+G(d,p) and 6-31G(d) Pople-style basis sets on the atoms of the ligands and the central Fe(II), respectively, was used. Negative chelation free energies obtained revealed that juglone derivatives possessing the O-H substituent (L2) have the greatest ability to chelate Fe2+ ion. Apart from 1B, thermodynamic descriptors of the AOA showed that the direct hydrogen atom transfer is the preferred mechanism of the studied molecules. NBO analysis showed that the Fe-ligand bonds are all formed through metal to ligand charge transfer. QTAIM studies revealed that among all the Fe-ligand bonds, the O1-Fe bond of 1A is purely covalent. The aforementioned results show that the ligands can be used to fight against Fe(II) toxicity, thus preserving human health, and fight against the deterioration of industrial products. In addition, most of the complexes studied have shown a better AOA than their corresponding ligands. Aymard Didier Tamafo Fouegue, Julius Numbonui Ghogomu, Désiré Bikélé Mama, Nyiang Kennet Nkungli, and Elie Younang Copyright © 2016 Aymard Didier Tamafo Fouegue et al. All rights reserved. Polyanionic Biopolymers for the Delivery of Pt(II) Cationic Antiproliferative Complexes Wed, 28 Sep 2016 13:16:33 +0000 Phenanthriplatin, that is, (SP-4-3)-diamminechlorido(phenanthridine)platinum(II) nitrate, an effective antitumor cationic Pt(II) complex, was loaded on negatively charged dextran sulfate (DS) as a model vector for drug delivery via electrostatic interactions. The free complex and the corresponding conjugate with DS were tested on two standard human tumor cell lines, namely, ovarian A2780 and colon HCT 116, and on several malignant pleural mesothelioma cell lines (namely, epithelioid BR95, mixed/biphasic MG06, sarcomatoid MM98, and sarcomatoid cisplatin-resistant MM98R). The in vitro results suggest that the conjugate releases the active metabolite phenanthriplatin with a biphasic fashion. In these experimental conditions, the conjugate is slightly less active than free phenanthriplatin; but both exhibited antiproliferative potency higher than the reference metallodrug cisplatin and were able to overcome the acquired cisplatin chemoresistance in MM98R cells. Mauro Ravera, Elisabetta Gabano, Ilaria Zanellato, Elena Perin, Aldo Arrais, and Domenico Osella Copyright © 2016 Mauro Ravera et al. All rights reserved. Chemical Species, Micromorphology, and XRD Fingerprint Analysis of Tibetan Medicine Zuotai Containing Mercury Wed, 21 Sep 2016 09:15:57 +0000 Zuotai (gTso thal) is one of the famous drugs containing mercury in Tibetan medicine. However, little is known about the chemical substance basis of its pharmacodynamics and the intrinsic link of different samples sources so far. Given this, energy dispersive spectrometry of X-ray (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to assay the elements, micromorphology, and phase composition of nine Zuotai samples from different regions, respectively; the XRD fingerprint features of Zuotai were analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis. EDX result shows that Zuotai contains Hg, S, O, Fe, Al, Cu, and other elements. SEM and AFM observations suggest that Zuotai is a kind of ancient nanodrug. Its particles are mainly in the range of 100–800 nm, which commonly further aggregate into 1–30 μm loosely amorphous particles. XRD test shows that β-HgS, S8, and α-HgS are its main phase compositions. XRD fingerprint analysis indicates that the similarity degrees of nine samples are very high, and the results of multivariate statistical analysis are broadly consistent with sample sources. The present research has revealed the physicochemical characteristics of Zuotai, and it would play a positive role in interpreting this mysterious Tibetan drug. Cen Li, Hongxia Yang, Yuzhi Du, Yuancan Xiao, Zhandui, Sanglao, Zhang Wang, Duojie Ladan, Hongtao Bi, and Lixin Wei Copyright © 2016 Cen Li et al. All rights reserved. Novel and Complexes of Natural Product Tryptanthrin: Synthesis and Binding with G-Quadruplex DNA Tue, 06 Sep 2016 17:16:14 +0000 Tryptanthrin is one of the most important members of indoloquinoline alkaloids. We obtained this alkaloid from Isatis. Two novel and complexes of tryptanthrin were first synthesized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses show that these complexes display distorted four-coordinated tetrahedron geometry via two heterocyclic nitrogen and oxygen atoms from tryptanthrin ligand. Binding with G-quadruplex DNA properties revealed that both complexes were found to exhibit significant interaction with G-quadruplex DNA. This study may potentially serve as the basis of future rational design of metal-based drugs from natural products that target the G-quadruplex DNA. Yi-ning Zhong, Yan Zhang, Yun-qiong Gu, Shi-yun Wu, Wen-ying Shen, and Ming-xiong Tan Copyright © 2016 Yi-ning Zhong et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Ag Addition on the Electrochemical Performance of Cu10Al in Artificial Saliva Mon, 29 Aug 2016 11:52:59 +0000 In this work we proposed to evaluate the corrosion resistance of four different alloys by electrochemical techniques, a binary alloy Cu10Al, and three ternary alloys Cu10Al-Ag ( = 5, 10, and 15 wt.%) to be used like biomaterials in dental application. Biomaterials proposed were tested in artificial saliva at 37°C for 48 h. In addition, pure metals Cu, Al, Ag, and Ti as reference materials were evaluated. In general the short time tests indicated that the Ag addition increases the corrosion resistance and reduces the extent of localized attack of the binary alloy. Moreover, tests for 48 hours showed that the Ag addition increases the stability of the passive layer, thereby reducing the corrosion rate of the binary alloy. SEM analysis showed that Cu10Al alloy was preferably corroded by grain boundaries, and the Ag addition modified the form of attack of the binary alloy. Cu-rich phases reacted with SCN− anions forming a film of CuSCN, and the Ag-rich phase is prone to react with SCN− anions forming AgSCN. Thus, binary and ternary alloys are susceptible to tarnish in the presence of thiocyanate ions. R. J. Salgado-Salgado, J. Porcayo-Calderon, O. Sotelo-Mazon, R. A. Rodriguez-Diaz, G. Salinas-Solano, V. M. Salinas-Bravo, and L. Martinez-Gomez Copyright © 2016 R. J. Salgado-Salgado et al. All rights reserved. Reversible Oxygenation of 2,4-Diaminobutanoic Acid-Co(II) Complexes Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:08:29 +0000 This paper introduces the structural characterization and studies on reversible oxygenation behavior of a new oxygen carrier Co(II)-2,4-diaminobutanoic acid (DABA) complex in aqueous solution. The composition of the oxygenated complex was determined by gas volumetric method, molar ratio method, and mass spectrometry, and the formula of the oxygenated complex was determined to be [Co(DABA)2O2]. In aqueous solution, the complex can continuously uptake and release dioxygen and exhibit excellent reversibility of oxygenation and deoxygenation ability. This complex can maintain 50% of its original oxygenation capacity after 30 cycles in 24 h and retain 5% of the original oxygenation capacity after more than 260 cycles after 72 h. When a ligand analogue was linked to histidine (His), the new complex exhibited as excellent reversible oxygenation property as His-Co(II) complex. Insight into the relationship between structural detail and oxygenation properties will provide valuable suggestion for a new family of oxygen carriers. Xiang Cheng, Yan Huang, Hui Li, Fan Yue, Hongmei Wen, and Jide Wang Copyright © 2016 Xiang Cheng et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterization, Anticancer, and Antioxidant Studies of Ru(III) Complexes of Monobasic Tridentate Schiff Bases Thu, 11 Aug 2016 13:53:37 +0000 Mononuclear Ru(III) complexes of the type [Ru(LL)Cl2(H2O)] (LL = monobasic tridentate Schiff base anion: (1Z)-N′-(2--[1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylidene]ethyl)-N-phenylethanimidamide [DAE], 4-[(1E)-N--[(Z)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)amino]ethanimidoyl]benzene-1,3-diol [HME], 4-[(1E)-N--[(Z)-(3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)amino]ethanimidoyl]benzene-1,3-diol [MBE], and N-(2--[1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylidene]ethyl)benzenecarboximidoyl chloride [DEE]) were synthesized and characterized using the microanalytical, conductivity measurements, electronic spectra, and FTIR spectroscopy. IR spectral studies confirmed that the ligands act as tridentate chelate coordinating the metal ion through the azomethine nitrogen and phenolic oxygen atom. An octahedral geometry has been proposed for all Ru(III)-Schiff base complexes. In vitro anticancer studies of the synthesized complexes against renal cancer cells (TK-10), melanoma cancer cells (UACC-62), and breast cancer cells (MCF-7) was investigated using the Sulforhodamine B assay. [Ru(DAE)Cl2(H2O)] showed the highest activity with IC50 valves of , , and  μM against MCF-7, UACC-62, and TK-10, respectively, order of activity being TK-10 < UACC-62 < MCF-7. The antioxidant activity by DPPH and ABTS inhibition assay was also examined. Scavenging ability of the complexes on DPPH radical can be ranked in the following order: [Ru(DEE)Cl2(H2O)] > [Ru(HME)Cl2(H2O)] > [Ru(DAE)Cl2(H2O)] > [Ru(MBE)Cl2(H2O)]. Ikechukwu P. Ejidike and Peter A. Ajibade Copyright © 2016 Ikechukwu P. Ejidike and Peter A. Ajibade. All rights reserved. Effect of His-Tag on Expression, Purification, and Structure of Zinc Finger Protein, ZNF191(243-368) Wed, 20 Jul 2016 12:38:10 +0000 Zinc finger proteins are associated with hereditary diseases and cancers. To obtain an adequate amount of zinc finger proteins for studying their properties, structure, and functions, many protein expression systems are used. ZNF191(243-368) is a zinc finger protein and can be fused with His-tag to generate fusion proteins such as His6-ZNF191(243-368) and ZNF191(243-368)-His8. The purification of His-tag protein using Ni-NTA resin can overcome the difficulty of ZNF191(243-368) separation caused by inclusion body formation. The influences of His-tag on ZNF191(243-368) properties and structure were investigated using spectrographic techniques and hydrolase experiment. Our findings suggest that insertion of a His-tag at the N-terminal or C-terminal end of ZNF191(243-368) has different effects on the protein. Therefore, an expression system should be considered based on the properties and structure of the protein. Furthermore, the hydrolase activity of ZNF191(243-368)-His8 has provided new insights into the design of biological functional molecules. Dongxin Zhao and Zhongxian Huang Copyright © 2016 Dongxin Zhao and Zhongxian Huang. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Polydopamine Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide-Palladium Nanocomposite for Laccase Based Biosensor Tue, 05 Jul 2016 08:18:01 +0000 Graphene based 2D nanomaterials have attracted increasing attention in biosensing application due to the outstanding physicochemical properties of graphene. In this work, palladium nanoparticles (Pd) loaded reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybrid (rGO-Pd) was synthesized through a facile method. Laccase (Lac) was immobilized on rGO-Pd by utilizing the self-polymerization of dopamine, which generated polydopamine (PDA). The PDA-Lac-rGO-Pd nanocomposites were further modified on electrode surface to construct novel biosensing platform. The obtained electrochemical biosensor was applied in the detection of catechol, achieving excellent analytic results. Under the optimum condition, this biosensor possessed a linear range from 0.1 µM to 263 µM for catechol detection, the sensitivity reached 18.4 µA mM−1, and the detection limit was as low as 0.03 µM. In addition, the biosensor also showed good repeatability, reproducibility, anti-interference, and stability. Moreover, the novel Lac based biosensor was successfully used in the trace detection of catechol existing in real water environment. Da-Wei Li, Lei Luo, Peng-Fei Lv, Qing-Qing Wang, Ke-Yu Lu, An-Fang Wei, and Qu-Fu Wei Copyright © 2016 Da-Wei Li et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Application of Ti-Substituted Polyoxometalates: Anti-Inflammatory Activity in OVA-Induced Asthma Murine Model Wed, 29 Jun 2016 13:13:07 +0000 Objective. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder. Despite extensive researches into the treatment and management of it, current treatments and management strategies are still limited. The search for a novel approach to its treatments is urgently needed. Researches on the potential medical use of polyoxometalates (POMs) have already shown it has antiviral and antitumor bioactivities. But the effects of POM in immune systems are still largely unknown. Methods. In order to investigate the role of POM in the asthmatic disease, we used OVA-induced asthma murine model and observed the pathological changes between mice that received three different Ti-substituted POMs (0.3 μg per mouse per dose) when challenged with OVA. We also measured the type 2 cytokine expressions to reveal the potential mechanism. Results and Conclusions. Our results showed that two Ti-substituted POMs, K5H2[FeW11TiO40]·17H2O and K5H[H2ZnW11TiO40]·35H2O, could reduce OVA-induced lung inflammation, serum IgE level (around 2000 ng/mL to less than 1000 ng/mL), leukocytes infiltration in the lung, and cytokines levels (including IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and TNF-α) but Ti-centered POM K4[TiW12O40]·10H2O did not. Thus, Ti-substituted POMs may have pharmaceutical values especially in treatments for asthmatic diseases. Dong Li, Xiuzhu Gao, Jingmin Gu, Yuan Tian, Yaqing Liu, Zheng Jin, Dongmei Yan, Ya-Guang Chen, and Xun Zhu Copyright © 2016 Dong Li et al. All rights reserved. Spectral Studies of UV and Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of AZO Dye and Textile Dye Effluents Using Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles Mon, 13 Jun 2016 08:59:26 +0000 The photocatalytic degradation of the chemical dye AZO and dye effluents in different time duration has been investigated using biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Dye industry effluents and AZO dye undergo degradation to form harmless intermediate and colourless products following irradiation by UV and solar light in the presence of green synthesized silver nanoparticles. The degree of degradation was tested under the experimental conditions such as , temperature, and absorbance of the dye in UV and solar light was measured. The degradation was higher in the UV light source than in the solar light source. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles in the UV light source were found to expedite the dye degradation process. R. Mariselvam, A. J. A. Ranjitsingh, P. Mosae Selvakumar, Abdullah A. Alarfaj, and Murugan A. Munusamy Copyright © 2016 R. Mariselvam et al. All rights reserved. Hair Mercury Levels Detection in Fishermen from Sicily (Italy) by ICP-MS Method after Microwave-Assisted Digestion Tue, 05 Apr 2016 09:47:45 +0000 A number of ninety-six hair samples from Sicilian fishermen were examined for total mercury detection by an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. The mercury levels obtained were compared with mercury levels of 96 hair samples from a control group, in order to assess potential exposure to heavy metals of Sicilian fishermen due to fish consumption and closeness to industrial activities. Furthermore, the mercury levels obtained from hair samples were sorted by sampling area in order to verify the possible risks linked to the different locations. The overall mean concentration in the hair of the population of fishermen was  μg g−1, with a highest value in a fisherman of Sciacca (16.48 μg g−1). Hair mercury concentration in fishermen group was significantly higher than in control group (). There was no significant difference in hair total mercury concentrations between sampling areas (). The results of this study indicate a greater risk of exposure to mercury in Sicilian fishermen, in comparison to the control population, due to the high consumption of fish and the close relationship with sources of exposure (ports, dumps, etc.). Giuseppe Giangrosso, Gaetano Cammilleri, Andrea Macaluso, Antonio Vella, Nicolantonio D’Orazio, Stefania Graci, Gianluigi Maria Lo Dico, Fabio Galvano, Margherita Giangrosso, and Vincenzo Ferrantelli Copyright © 2016 Giuseppe Giangrosso et al. All rights reserved. Reversible Oxygenation of α-Amino Acid–Cobalt(II) Complexes Sun, 28 Feb 2016 07:53:08 +0000 We systematically investigated the reversibility, time lapse, and oxygenation-deoxygenation properties of 15 natural -amino acid–Co(II) complexes through UV-vis spectrophotometer, polarographic oxygen electrode, and DFT calculations, respectively, to explore the relationship between the coordinating structure and reversible oxygenation of -amino acid–Co(II) complexes. Results revealed that the -amino acid structure plays a key role in the reversible oxygenation properties of these complexes. The specific configuration of the -amino acid group affects the electron of Co(II) transfer to the orbit of O2; this phenomenon also favors the reversible formation and dissociation of Co–O2 bond when O2 coordinates with Co(II) complexes. Therefore, the co-coordination of amino and carboxyl groups is a determinant of Co complexes to absorb O2 reversibly. The group adjacent to the -amino acid unit evidently influences the dioxygen affinity and antioxidation ability of the complexes. The presence of amino (or imino) and hydroxy groups adjacent to the -amino acid group increases the oxygenation-deoxygenation rate and the number of reversible cycles. Our findings demonstrate a new mechanism to develop reversible oxygenation complexes and to reveal the oxygenation of oxygen carriers. Xincun Zhang, Fan Yue, Hui Li, Yan Huang, Yi Zhang, Hongmei Wen, and Jide Wang Copyright © 2016 Xincun Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Spectroscopic Properties, and Interaction with Ct-DNA of Zn(II) with 2-Aminoethanethiol Hydrochloride Ligand Wed, 10 Feb 2016 06:43:11 +0000 The zinc(II) complex (C2H6NS)2Zn·ZnCl2 was synthesized with 2-aminoethanethiol hydrochloride and zinc sulfate heptahydrate as the raw materials in aqueous solution. The composition and structure of the complex were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra, single crystal X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetry. The crystal structure of the zinc(II) complex belongs to monoclinic system, space group   , with cell parameters of = 0.84294(4), = 0.83920(4), = 1.65787(8) nm, , and = 2.041 g/cm3. In this paper, the interaction of complex with Ct-DNA was investigated by UV-visible and viscosimetric techniques. Upon addition of the complex, important changes were observed in the characteristic UV-Vis bands (hyperchromism) of calf thymus DNA and some changes in specific viscosity. The experimental results showed that the complex is bound to DNA intercalative (intercalation binding). Xu-gang Shu, Chun-li Wu, Cui-jin Li, Min Zhang, Ke Wan, and Xin Wu Copyright © 2016 Xu-gang Shu et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Osseointegration by Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 on Titanium Implants In Vitro and In Vivo Mon, 08 Feb 2016 12:07:29 +0000 This study designed a biomimetic implant for reducing healing time and achieving early osseointegration to create an active surface. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a strong regulator protein in osteogenic pathways. Due to hardly maintaining BMP-2 biological function and specificity, BMP-2 efficient delivery on implant surfaces is the main challenge for the clinic application. In this study, a novel method for synthesizing functionalized silane film for superior modification with BMP-2 on titanium surfaces is proposed. Three groups were compared with and without BMP-2 on modified titanium surfaces in vitro and in vivo: mechanical grinding; electrochemical modification through potentiostatic anodization (ECH); and sandblasting, alkali heating, and etching (SMART). Cell tests indicated that the ECH and SMART groups with BMP-2 markedly promoted D1 cell activity and differentiation compared with the groups without BMP-2. Moreover, the SMART group with a BMP-2 surface markedly promoted early alkaline phosphatase expression in the D1 cells compared with the other surface groups. Compared with these groups in vivo, SMART silaning with BMP-2 showed superior bone quality and created contact areas between implant and surrounding bones. The SMART group with BMP-2 could promote cell mineralization in vitro and osseointegration in vivo, indicating potential clinical use. Fu-Yuan Teng, Wen-Cheng Chen, Yin-Lai Wang, Chun-Cheng Hung, and Chun-Chieh Tseng Copyright © 2016 Fu-Yuan Teng et al. All rights reserved. Formation of Silver Nanoclusters from a DNA Template Containing Ag(I)-Mediated Base Pairs Thu, 04 Feb 2016 08:22:23 +0000 A series of DNA double helices containing different numbers of silver(I)-mediated base pairs involving the artificial nucleobases imidazole or 2-methylimidazole has been applied for the generation of DNA-templated silver nanoclusters. The original Ag(I)-containing nucleic acids as well as the resulting nanoclusters and nanoparticles have been characterized by means of UV/Vis spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show for the first time that metal-mediated base pairs can be used for the templated growth of metal nanoclusters. J. Christian Léon, Linda Stegemann, Martin Peterlechner, Stefanie Litau, Gerhard Wilde, Cristian A. Strassert, and Jens Müller Copyright © 2016 J. Christian Léon et al. All rights reserved. Norfloxacin and N-Donor Mixed-Ligand Copper(II) Complexes: Synthesis, Albumin Interaction, and Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi Activity Tue, 26 Jan 2016 13:21:47 +0000 Copper(II) complexes with the first-generation quinolone antibacterial agent norfloxacin containing a nitrogen donor heterocyclic ligand 2,2′-bipyridine (bipy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) were prepared and characterized by IR, EPR spectra, molar conductivity, and elemental analyses. The experimental data suggest that norfloxacin was coordinated to copper(II) through the carboxylato and ketone oxygen atoms. The interaction of the copper(II) complexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated using fluorescence quenching of the tryptophan residues and copper(II) EPR spectroscopy. The results of fluorescence titration revealed that copper(II) complexes have a moderate ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of the albumins through a static quenching mechanism. EPR experiments showed that BSA and HSA Cu(II) sites compete with NOR for Cu(II)-bipy and Cu(II)-phen to form protein mixed-ligand complexes. Copper(II) complexes, together with the corresponding ligands, were evaluated for their trypanocidal activity in vitro against Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. The tests performed using bloodstream trypomastigotes showed that the Cu(II)-N-donor precursors and the metal complexes were more active than the free fluoroquinolone. Darliane A. Martins, Ligiane R. Gouvea, Gabriel S. Vignoli Muniz, Sonia R. W. Louro, Denise da Gama Jaen Batista, Maria de Nazaré C. Soeiro, and Letícia R. Teixeira Copyright © 2016 Darliane A. Martins et al. All rights reserved.