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Bone Marrow Research
Volume 2013, Article ID 803450, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/803450
Clinical Study

High-Frequency Vibration Treatment of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Increases Differentiation toward Bone Tissue

1Department of Industrial and Information Sciences, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia, Italy
2Center for Tissue Engineering, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia, Italy
3Department of Public Health, Experimental Medicine and Forensics, University of Pavia, Via Forlanini, 8, 27100 Pavia, Italy
4Department of Molecular Medicine and UdR INSTM, University of Pavia, Viale Forlanini 6, 27100 Pavia, Italy
5Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation IRCCS, Via S. Maugeri 4, 27100 Pavia, Italy

Received 3 December 2012; Accepted 20 February 2013

Academic Editor: David A. Rizzieri

Copyright © 2013 D. Prè et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In order to verify whether differentiation of adult stem cells toward bone tissue is promoted by high-frequency vibration (HFV), bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were mechanically stimulated with HFV (30 Hz) for 45 minutes a day for 21 or 40 days. Cells were seeded in osteogenic medium, which enhances differentiation towards bone tissue. The effects of the mechanical treatment on differentiation were measured by Alizarin Red test, (q) real-time PCR, and protein content of the extracellular matrix. In addition, we analyzed the proliferation rate and apoptosis of BMSC subjected to mechanical stimulation. A strong increase in all parameters characterizing differentiation was observed. Deposition of calcium was almost double in the treated samples; the expression of genes involved in later differentiation was significantly increased and protein content was higher for all osteogenic proteins. Lastly, proliferation results indicated that stimulated BMSCs have a decreased growth rate in comparison with controls, but both treated and untreated cells do not enter the apoptosis process. These findings could reduce the gap between research and clinical application for bone substitutes derived from patient cells by improving the differentiation protocol for autologous cells and a further implant of the bone graft into the patient.