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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2004 (2004), Issue 5, Pages 299-305
Mini-Review Article

New Family of Bluish Pyranoanthocyanins

Centro de Investigação em Química, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, rua do Campo Alegre 687, Porto 4169-007, Portugal

Received 2 April 2004; Revised 10 May 2004; Accepted 19 May 2004

Copyright © 2004 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The use of anthocyanins has been investigated for the preparation of food and beverage natural colorants as they seem to have nontoxic effects. In this context, vinylpyranoanthocyanins were recently found to naturally occur in ageing red wine. This new family of anthocyanin-derived pigments may be obtained directly through the reaction between anthocyanin derivatives and other compounds. Some of these newly formed pigments have been found to exhibit a bluish color at acidic pH. The formation of bluish pigment was obtained through reaction between anthocyanin-pyruvic-acid adducts and flavanols in the presence of acetaldehyde. The formation of similar bluish pigments was attempted using other different precursors. The chromatic features of this kind of pigments bring promising expectations concerning the use of these naturally occurring blue pigments in the food industry.