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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2009, Article ID 871313, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/871313
Review Article

Searching for MIND: MicroRNAs in Neurodegenerative Diseases

1European Brain Research Institute (EBRI), Fondazione EBRI- Rita Levi-Montalcini, Via del Fosso di Fiorano 64/65, 00143 Roma, Italy
2Istituto di Neurobiologia e Medicina Molecolare (INMM), CNR, Via del Fosso di Fiorano 64/65, 00143 Roma, Italy
3Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Cellulari ed Ematologia, Sezione di Genetica Molecolare, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161 Roma, Italy

Received 9 January 2009; Accepted 12 June 2009

Academic Editor: Pawan Malhotra

Copyright © 2009 Christian Barbato et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In few years our understanding of microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis, molecular mechanisms by which miRNAs regulate gene expression, and the functional roles of miRNAs has been expanded. Interestingly, numerous miRNAs are expressed in a spatially and temporally controlled manner in the nervous system, suggesting that their posttrascriptional regulation may be particularly relevant in neural development and function. MiRNA studies in neurobiology showed their involvement in synaptic plasticity and brain diseases. In this review ,correlations between miRNA-mediated gene silencing and Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and other neurodegenerative diseases will be discussed. Molecular and cellular neurobiological studies of the miRNAs in neurodegeneration represent the exploration of a new Frontier of miRNAs biology and the potential development of new diagnostic tests and genetic therapies for neurodegenerative diseases.