Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 934579, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/934579
Research Article

Serodeconversion of HIV Antibody-Positive AIDS Patients Following Treatment with V-1 Immunitor

1Occupational and Environmental Medicine Association of Thailand, Rajavithi General Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Rajavithi Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
2Immunitor USA Inc., 9308 48th Avenue, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Received 30 May 2008; Revised 7 August 2008; Accepted 7 September 2008

Academic Editor: Ali Ouaissi

Copyright © 2009 Orapun Metadilogkul et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. G. Bartlett and J. E. Gallan, Medical Management of HIV, Chapter II, HIV Serology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md, USA, 2003.
  2. K. L. MacDonald, J. B. Jackson, R. J. Bowman et al., “Performance characteristics of serologic tests for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody among Minnesota blood donors. Public health and clinical implications,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 110, no. 8, pp. 617–621, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  3. R. M. Nakamura, D. J. Bylund, and K. E. Rooney, “Current status of clinical laboratory tests for the human immunodeficiency virus,” Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 295–306, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. F. Gschnait, B. L. Schmidt, T. Schwarz, F. X. Heinz, and C. Kunz, “HIV (HTLV III/LAV) serology: experiences based on more than 42,000 tests,” Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, vol. 99, no. 15, pp. 536–539, 1987 (German). View at Google Scholar
  5. L. Montagnier, C. Brenner, S. Chamaret et al., “Human immunodeficiency virus infection and AIDS in a person with negative serology,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 175, no. 4, pp. 955–959, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. J. M. Quiñonez, R. E. Begue, and R. W. Steele, “HIV seronegativity in an infant with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,” Southern Medical Journal, vol. 91, no. 9, pp. 879–881, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  7. D. T. Imagawa, M. H. Lee, S. M. Wolinsky et al., “Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in homosexual men who remain seronegative for prolonged periods,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 320, no. 22, pp. 1458–1462, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  8. P. S. Sullivan, C. Schable, W. Koch et al., “Persistently negative HIV-1 antibody enzyme immunoassay screening results for patients with HIV-1 infection and AIDS: serologic, clinical, and virologic results,” AIDS, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 89–96, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. L. Reimer, S. Mottice, C. Schable et al., “Absence of detectable antibody in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 98–100, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. D. L. Ellenberger, P. S. Sullivan, J. Dorn et al., “Viral and immunologic examination of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected, persistently seronegative persons,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 180, no. 4, pp. 1033–1042, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  11. R. S. Root-Bernstein, “Five myths about AIDS that have misdirected research and treatment,” Genetica, vol. 95, no. 1–3, pp. 111–132, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. C. J. Chantry, E. R. Cooper, S. I. Pelton, C. Zorilla, G. V. Hillyer, and C. Diaz, “Seroreversion in human immunodeficiency virus-exposed but uninfected infants,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 382–387, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  13. S. S. Bakshi, S. Tetali, E. J. Abrams, M. O. Paul, and S. G. Pahwa, “Repeatedly positive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA polymerase chain reaction in human immunodeficiency virus-exposed seroreverting infants,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 658–662, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  14. M. Gutierrez, V. Soriano, R. Bravo, A. Vallejo, and J. Gonzalez-Lahoz, “Seroreversion in patients with end-stage HIV infection,” Vox Sanguinis, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 238–239, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  15. H. L. Zaaijer, M. H. Bloemer, and P. N. Lelie, “Temporary seronegativity in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected man,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 80–82, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. L. H. Perrin, R. Zubler, B. Hirschel et al., “Reversal of positive serology for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Apropos of 2 case reports,” Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift, vol. 118, no. 45, pp. 1641–1644, 1988 (French). View at Google Scholar
  17. H. Farzadegan, M. A. Polis, S. M. Wolinsky et al., “Loss of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibodies with evidence of viral infection in asymptomatic homosexual men. A report from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 108, no. 6, pp. 785–790, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  18. K. M. Coyne, J. V. Parry, M. Atkins, A. Pozniak, and A. McOwan, “Spontaneous HIV-1 seroreversion in an adult male,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 627–630, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  19. D. K. Koech and A. O. Obel, “Efficacy of Kemron (low dose oral natural human interferon alpha) in the management of HIV-1 infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS),” East African Medical Journal, vol. 67, no. 7, supplement 2, pp. SS64–SS70, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  20. W. B. Lu, R. X. Wen, and C. F. Guan, “A report on 8 seronegative converted HIV/AIDS patients with traditional Chinese medicine,” Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi Jiehe Zazhi, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 271–273, 1997 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  21. S. Jurriaans, S. U. C. Sankatsing, J. M. Prins et al., “HIV-1 seroreversion in an HIV-1-seropositive patient treated during acute infection with highly active antiretroviral therapy and mycophenoiate mofetil,” AIDS, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 1607–1608, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. S. Kassutto, M. N. Johnston, and E. S. Rosenberg, “Incomplete HIV type 1 antibody evolution and seroreversion in acutely infected individuals treated with early antiretroviral therapy,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 868–873, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  23. J. O. A. Abalaka, “Attempts to cure and prevent HIV/AIDS in central Nigeria between 1997 and 2002: opening a way to a vaccine-based solution to the problem?,” Vaccine, vol. 22, no. 29-30, pp. 3819–3828, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  24. V. A. Ngu and F. Ambe, “Effective vaccines against and immunotherapy of the HIV: a preliminary report (1),” Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences, vol. 1, pp. 2–8, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  25. V. Jirathitikal and A. S. Bourinbaiar, “Preclinical and safety studies of V-1 Immunitor,” International Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 9, no. 3-4, pp. 318–331, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. V. Jirathitikal, O. Metadilogkul, and A. S. Bourinbaiar, “Increased body weight and improved quality of life in AIDS patients following V-1 Immunitor admimnistration,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 110–115, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  27. V. Jirathitikal and A. S. Bourinbaiar, “Effect of an oral therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine on aids patients with CD4 count above 250 cells/mm3,” Acta Virologica, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 73–78, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  28. V. Jirathitikal, P. Sooksathan, O. Metadilogkul, and A. S. Bourinbaiar, “V-1 Immunitor: oral therapeutic AIDS vaccine with prophylactic potential,” Vaccine, vol. 21, no. 7-8, pp. 624–628, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. A. S. Bourinbaiar, V. Jirathitikal, O. Metadilogkul et al., “Phase II placebo-controlled study of V-1 Immunitor as a therapeutic modality for treatment of HIV,” Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 31, pp. S55–S62, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  30. O. Metadilogkul, V. Jirathitikal, and A. S. Bourinbaiar, “Prolonged survival of end-stage AIDS patients immunized with therapeutic HIV vaccine V-1 Immunitor,” Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, vol. 59, no. 8, pp. 469–473, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  31. A. S. Bourinbaiar and K. Ajuang-Simbiri, “Simple procedure for estimating the efficiency of PCR,” Molecular Biotechnology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 87–89, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  32. M. J. Roy, J. J. Damato, and D. S. Burke, “Absence of true seroreversion of HIV-1 antibody in seroreactive individuals,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 269, no. 22, pp. 2876–2879, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. O. Metadilogkul, S. Sribantao, and S. Buraparat, Investigational Report on HIV-Positive Patients Who Became HIV-Negative (Report in Thai), Office of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ministry of Public Health and Occupational and Environmental Medicine Association of Thailand, Rajavithi General Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, 2002.
  34. L. M. Cummins, K. J. Weinhold, T. J. Matthews et al., “Preparation and characterization of an intravenous solution of IgG from human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive donors,” Blood, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 1111–1117, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  35. F. A. Koning, T. J. K. van der Vorst, and H. Schuitemaker, “Low levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA in high-risk seronegative men,” Journal of Virology, vol. 79, no. 10, pp. 6551–6553, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  36. D. Zagury, R. Léonard, M. Fouchard et al., “Immunization against AIDS in humans,” Nature, vol. 326, no. 6110, pp. 249–250, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  37. A. S. Bourinbaiar, R. S. Root-Bernstein, R. Abulafia-Lapid et al., “Therapeutic AIDS vaccines,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 12, no. 16, pp. 2017–2030, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. E. J. Stott, “Anti-cell antibody in macaques,” Nature, vol. 353, no. 6343, p. 393, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  39. L. O. Arthur, J. W. Bess, Jr., R. C. Sowder, II et al., “Cellular proteins bound to immunodeficiency viruses: implications for pathogenesis and vaccines,” Science, vol. 258, no. 5090, pp. 1935–1938, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. L. Lopalco, C. Pastori, A. Cosma et al., “Anti-cell antibodies in exposed seronegative individuals with HIV type 1-neutralizing activity,” AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 109–115, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  41. M. Spruth, H. Stoiber, L. Kacani, D. Schönitzer, and M. P. Dierich, “Neutralization of HIV type 1 by alloimmune sera derived from polytransfused patients,” AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 533–543, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  42. G. M. Shearer, L. A. Pinto, and M. Clerici, “Alloimmunization for immune-based therapy and vaccine design against HIV/AIDS,” Immunology Today, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 66–71, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. A. S. Bourinbaiar and R. Abulafia-Lapid, “Autoimmunity, alloimmunization and immunotherapy of AIDS,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 403–409, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  44. R. Abulafia-Lapid, S. Mayan, Z. Bentwich et al., “T-cell vaccination against anti-CD4 autoimmunity in HIV-1 subtypes B and C-infected patients—an extended open trial,” Vaccine, vol. 23, no. 17-18, pp. 2149–2153, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  45. M. Page, A. Ojugo, N. Imami, G. Hardy, F. Gotch, and N. Almond, “Specificity of anti-human leukocyte antigen antibody responses after immunization with Remune, an inactivated HIV-1 vaccine,” AIDS, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 375–377, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  46. E. Israeli, R. Safadi, A. Melhem et al., “Induction of oral immune regulation towards liver-extracted proteins for treatment of chronic HBV and HCV hepatitis: results of a phase I clinical trial,” Liver International, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 295–307, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  47. D. Batdelger, D. Dandii, V. Jirathitikal, and A. S. Bourinbaiar, “Open label trial of therapeutic hepatitis B vaccine V-5 Immunitor (V5) delivered by oral route,” Letters in Drug Design and Discovery, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 540–544, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. D. Batdelger, D. Dandii, V. Jirathitikal, and A. S. Bourinbaiar, “Open-label trial of therapeutic immunization with oral V-5 Immunitor (V5) vaccine in patients with chronic hepatitis C,” Vaccine, vol. 26, no. 22, pp. 2733–2737, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  49. B. Autran, R. L. Murphy, D. Costagliola et al., “Greater viral rebound and reduced time to resume antiretroviral therapy after therapeutic immunization with the ALVAC-HIV vaccine (vCP1452),” AIDS, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 1313–1322, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  50. M. Cornelissen, S. Jurriaans, J. M. Prins, M. Bakker, and A. C. van der Kuyl, “Absence of seroreversion in 80 HAART-treated HIV-1 seropositive patients with at least five-years undetectable plasma HIV-1 viral load,” AIDS Research and Therapy, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 3, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  51. C. B. Hare, B. L. Pappalardo, M. P. Busch et al., “Seroreversion in subjects receiving antiretroviral therapy during acute/early HIV infection,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 700–708, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  52. J. W. Tang, B. C. K. Wong, E. Lam et al., “Failure to confirm HIV infection in two end-stage HIV/AIDS patients using a popular commercial line immunoassay,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 80, no. 9, pp. 1515–1522, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  53. SUICIDE, Ministry to Probe Death of Medical Technician, The Nation, Bangkok, Thailand, 2002.