Figure 1: Helminth E/S products are able to act on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) inducing TSLP that engages with the TSLP receptor on DCs and inhibits IL-12/p40. (a) Some E/S products are able to induce signaling through TLRs directly on DCs, resulting in the inhibition of this Th1-promoting cytokine. (b) On the other hand, Th2 responses could be promoted through interactions of helminths with other pattern recognition receptors such as C-type lectins (CLR) or scavenger receptor-A (SR-A) and induction of costimulators such as OX-40L that result in Th2 promotion. (c) Finally, interaction with CD103+ DCs may result in the induction of T regs through TGF- 𝛽 and retinoic acid (RA) production. (d) The question of whether different subsets are responsible for these phenomena remains to be determined.