BioMed Research International / 2010 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Molecular Modulation of Intestinal Epithelial Barrier: Contribution of Microbiota

Table 1

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), and expression patterns (see, [3, 12, 14]).

PRRsLocationMAMPsMAMPs
Non Viral LigandsViral Ligands

TLRs

TLR1Cell membraneLipopeptides

TLR2Cell membraneDi-/triacyl lipopeptideVirion (HSV)
PeptidoglycanHA (Measles)
Lipoteichoic acid (LTA)
Zymosan
PorinsB and H proteins (HCMV)
Lipoarabinomannan
PhospholipomannanENv (MMTV)
Glucuronoxylomannan
GPI-linked proteinsCore, NS3 (HCV)
Virion

TLR3Endosome membranedsRNARNA viruses

LR4Cell membraneLipopolysaccharide (LPS)ENv protein (MMTV)
Mannan
GlucuronoxylomannanF protein (RSV)
HSP
Fibrinogen

TLR5Cell membraneFlagellin

TLR6Cell membraneLipoprotein, LTA, others

TLR7Endosome membraneSynthetic ssRNA (e.g., imiquimod, resiquimod (R848)Influenza A, VSV

TLR8Endosome membraneSynthetic ssRNA (e.g.,imiquimod, resiquimod (R848)HIV

TLR9Endosome membraneCpG DNAUnmethylated DNA (HSV 1,2)
HemozoinMCMV
Adenovirus
Baculovirus (wild type)

TLR10Cell membraneUnknown

TLR11Cell membraneProfilin

NLRs

Nod1CytoplasmicGram-negative peptidoglycan

Nod2CytoplasmicGram-negative and positive peptidoglycan

IPAFCytoplasmicFlagellinViral RNA

NALP3CytoplasmicRNA

FPRCell membraneFormylated peptides, ?

FPRL 1-2Cell membraneFormylated peptides, ?

RIG-1 helicaseCytoplasmicSynthetic dsRNAHCV,
5 î…ž -triphosphateJapanese encephalitis
dsRNARSV, Influenza A, EBV

C-type lectinsCell membranesFungal carbohydrates

Abbreviations: dsRNA: double-stranded RNA; EBV: Epstein-Barr virus; ECMV: encephalomyocarditis virus; GPI: glycosylphosphatidylinositol; HA: hemagglutinin; HCV: hepatitis C virus; HCMV: human cytomegalovirus; HIV: human immunodeficiency virus; HSP: heat-shock protein; HSV: herpes simplex virus; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; MCMV: murine cytomegalovirus; MMTV: mouse mammary tumor virus; RSV: respiratory syncytial virus; ssRNA: single-stranded RNA; VSV: vesicular stomatitis virus.