Figure 3: Immune response against gastrointestinal nematodes (GNE: eosinophil granulocyte, HS1: type 1 hypersensitivity). Against larva, ADCC and type 1 hypersensitivity are involved to block their migration in gut mucosa and to eliminate the parasite. Against adult in the lumen of gut, intestinal anaphylaxis responsible for muscle contractility, mucus secretion, and so forth, leads to the expulsion of the parasite. IgA neutralizes the metabolic enzymes and interferes with the worm’s ability to feed.