Review Article

There Goes the Neighborhood: Pathological Alterations in T-Tubule Morphology and Consequences for Cardiomyocyte C a 𝟐 + Handling

Figure 2

Examples of T-tubule alterations in various pathological states. Left panels show images from controls; right panels show images from (a) chronically ischemic pig myocardium (from [43]), (b) failing atrial ovine cardiomyocytes (from [40]), and post-infarction heart failure models in (c) mouse (from [44]) and (d) rat (from [45]). Panel (d) shows representative electron micrographs from control and failing rat hearts showing T-tubule disruption. (e) Scanning ion conductance microscope images from the surface of human nonfailing (control) and failing cardiomyocytes showing loss of T-tubular openings (from [46]). All figures are reproduced with permission.
(a) Chronically ischemic myocardium (pig)
(b) Failing atrial cardiomyocytes (sheep)
(c) Postinfarction heart failure (mouse)
(d) Postinfarction heart failure (rat)
(e) Human heart failure