There Goes the Neighborhood: Pathological Alterations in T-Tubule Morphology and Consequences for Cardiomyocyte Handling
Examples of T-tubule alterations in various pathological states. Left panels show images from controls; right panels show images from (a) chronically ischemic pig myocardium (from ), (b) failing atrial ovine cardiomyocytes (from ), and post-infarction heart failure models in (c) mouse (from ) and (d) rat (from ). Panel (d) shows representative electron micrographs from control and failing rat hearts showing T-tubule disruption. (e) Scanning ion conductance microscope images from the surface of human nonfailing (control) and failing cardiomyocytes showing loss of T-tubular openings (from ). All figures are reproduced with permission.