Review Article

There Goes the Neighborhood: Pathological Alterations in T-Tubule Morphology and Consequences for Cardiomyocyte C a 𝟐 + Handling

Figure 3

T-tubule density affects Ca2+ release synchrony. (a) Variable amount of T-tubules in different cell types affects the homogeneity of the Ca2+ transient, as illustrated in confocal line scans of myocytes from mouse ventricle ((a), unpublished data), pig ventricle ((b), from [43]), and cat atria ((c), from [49]). (b) Experimental loss of T-tubules using the detubulation technique causes delayed Ca2+ release in the centre of the cardiomyocyte (from [52]). (c) T-tubules are lost when cardiomyocytes are kept in culture resulting in dyssynchronous slowing of the Ca2+ transient (from [53]). All figures are reproduced with permission.
(a) Species variablity
(b) Detubulation
(c) Cell culture