Table 1: Serum biomarkers that correlate with lupus nephritis activity in cross-sectional studies.

Authors, yearBiomarkers studiedMain findings

Hoftman et al., 2008 [63]MAGE-B2 antibodiesPositive melanoma-associated antigen gene B2 (MAGE-B2) antibody associated with higher SLE disease activity score and active lupus nephritis
Tan et al., 2008 [64]Anti-CRP antibodyIgG autoantibody against monomeric CRP prevalent in patients with lupus nephritis and associated with SLE disease activity score and renal tubulointerstitial lesions
Tucci et al., 2008 [65]Serum and urine IL-12Glomerular expression of IL-12 predominantly occurs in class IV and V lupus nephritis, serum and urine IL-12 higher in lupus nephritis than nonrenal SLE
Fu et al., 2008 [66]Peripheral blood leukocyte chemokine transcriptional levelsInterferon-inducible chemokines in peripheral blood leucocytes higher in active than inactive lupus nephritis and associated with SLE disease activity score
Morgan et al., 2007 [67]Serum apoCIIITotal apolipoprotein (apo) CIII levels significantly elevated in lupus nephritis than nonrenal SLE and controls
Sabry et al., 2007 [68]Serum ICAM-1Intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 level significantly higher in lupus nephritis than nonrenal SLE and correlates with disease activity score
Tseng et al., 2007 [69]Antiendothelial cell antibodyAntiendothelial cell antibody titer higher in active lupus nephritis than nonrenal SLE and correlates with disease activity score