Table 4: Biomarkers that correlate with prognosis in lupus nephritis.

Authors, yearBiomarkers studiedMain findings

Izmirly et al., 2009 [89]mEPCR expression on renal biopsyMembrane expression of endothelial protein C receptor (mEPCR) in the renal microvasculature in lupus nephritis associated with poor therapeutic response
Avihingsanon et al., 2009 [90]VEGF expressionIntrarenal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression predicted the deterioration of renal function in lupus nephritis
Marks et al., 2008 [84]Glomerular MCP-1 expressionGlomerular monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression associated with poor renal prognosis in pediatric lupus nephritis
Oates et al., 2008 [83]Serum nitrate and nitrite levelsHigher serum nitrate plus nitrite levels associated with renal damage and treatment failure in lupus nephritis
Martinez-Lostao et al., 2007 [91]STAT-1 expression on renal biopsyExpression of STAT-1 in renal tissues associated with worse renal function and outcome in class IV lupus nephritis
Avihingsanon et al., 2006 [86]Chemokine and growth factor mRNA levels in urinary sedimentsPersistent elevation or increase of urine interferon-producing protein 10 (IP-10), CXCR3, TGF- 𝛽 , and VEGF mRNA levels associated with treatment failure in lupus nephritis