Table 4: Preparation of vaccines for lymphomas, an overview of possible methodological approaches [104].


Improving antigen delivery
 DNA vaccinesSkin or muscle injection of cDNA encoding the antigen. Protein is endogenously produced, and the epitopes can be combined with sequences from the carrier proteins or adjuvant proteins that increase immunogenicity
 Liposomal vaccinesAntigens are supposed to be delivered both for endosomal (CD4+ responses) and cytosolic processing (CD8+ responses), combination with adjuvant is possible and custom-made vaccines can rapidly be produced.
Increasing antigen presentation
 Normal dendritic cell vaccinesDendritic cells are regarded as the most powerful antigen-presenting cells; the cells can be pulsed by either cell lysates, heat shock proteins with bound client proteins or apoptotic cell organelles.
 CpG vaccinesDendritic cells are activated via toll-like receptors; these antigen-presenting cells will take up cancer-derived peptides and this approach thereby bypasses the step of custom-made vaccines. One approach is pre-vaccination local therapy that induces apoptosis, and local CpG-injection will then enhance the uptake and presentation of peptides derived from malignant cells
 Malignant dendritic cellsCan be prepared for various hematological malignancies; these cells will present several tumor-specific as well as tumor-associated antigens.