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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 823131, 6 pages
Research Article

Discrepancy between mRNA and Protein Expression of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Bronchial Epithelium Induced by Sulfur Mustard

1Chemical Injury Research Center (CIRC), Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 114359-44711, Iran
2Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran 1157-14665, Iran
3Research Center of Molecular Biology, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 114359-44711, Iran
4Division of Histology, Department of Rehabilitation, School of Medical Sciences & Welfare, Tohoku Bunka Gakuen University, Sendai 981-8551, Japan

Received 22 October 2009; Accepted 8 March 2010

Academic Editor: Rita Casadio

Copyright © 2010 Majid Ebrahimi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent vesicant that has been employed as a chemical weapon in various conflicts during the 20th century. More recently, mustard was used in the Iraq conflict against Iranian troops and civilians. At the present time there are more than 40.000 people suffering from pulmonary lesions special bronchiolitis obliterans (BOs) due to mustard gas. SM increases the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2, NGAL) is a member of the lipocalin superfamily for which a variety of functions such as cellular protection against oxidative stress have been reported. Ten normal and Twenty SM-induced COPD patient individuals were studied. Assessment of NGAL expressions in healthy and the patients endobrinchial biopsies were performed by semiquantitative RT-PCR, real-time RT-PCR, and Immunohistochemistry analysis. While Normal control samples expressed same level of mRNA NGAL, expression level of mRNA-NGAL was upregulated about 1.4- to 9.8-folds compared to normal samples. No significant immunoreactivity was revealed in both samples. As we are aware this is the first report of induction of NGAL in patients exposed to SM. NGAL may play an important role in cellular protection against oxidative stress toxicity induced by mustard gas in airway wall of patients.