Figure 2: Cells of the periparasitic granuloma in E. multilocularis infection in humans; immunostaining of liver sections of patients with alveolar echinococcosis. (a) the “epithelioid cells” (EC) are CD68+ macrophages with an epithelium-like arrangement, located at close contact to the laminated layer of the parasitic vesicle (PV); (b) CD8+ T-cells represent the major cell population of the periparasitic infiltrate; (c) infiltration by CD3+ T-cells is especially prominent around the new vessels (V) developed at the periphery of the granuloma, at the border of the invaded liver parenchyma (LP); (d) most of the infiltrating T-cells express TGF- 𝛽 . (Photo: B. Kantelip and DA Vuitton, WHO-Collaborating Centre; Université de Franche-Comté, Besançon, France).